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Author Topic: Arthur in History  (Read 4948 times)
Description: A study of the archaeology and history
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« Reply #30 on: October 28, 2006, 09:11:26 AM »

Having trouble posting, keep getting error on page when I hit post. Excellent bio on Wilson at the link below, if someone could post it here, I'm thinking it will make Moneypenny's day.


Here we go:
Alan Wilson (historian)
Alan Wilson is a Welsh historian specialising in the study of the origins of King Arthur and related subjects.

Early career
Wilson studied at the University of Cardiff before a highly successful career in the shipbuilding industry as a master planner. After working in Wales, England, Scotland, Ireland, Italy and Sweden as a consultant, he retired to concentrate on the historial research he first started on a part-time basis in 1956.

Arthurian research
In 1976, after a chance meeting with historical researcher, Baram Blackett, at the public library in Newcastle upon Tyne, the two men decided to put up many thousands of pounds of their own money to fund full-time research into the origins of King Arthur. The Arthurian stories, so popular today, came out of South-Eastern Wales into France, via the Normans, in the 12th century and this encouraged them to start their search in the same place. The search soon moved beyond Wales into the English Midlands.

To date, Wilson and Blackett have produced some seven books that provide massive historical detail based upon Old Welsh records. They believe that these provide a final solution to the King Arthur story and claim to have discovered the true sites of the battles of Badon (Mynydd Baedan) and Camlann.

In 1983, Wilson and Blackett discovered what they believe to be King Arthur's memorial stone at the small ruined church of St Peter-super-Montem on Mynydd-y-Gaer in Mid-Glamorgan, which they own. Following this, they employed the services of two archaeologists, in 1990, to lead a professional dig at the same place. During the excavations, which were authorised by the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales, several highly significant artefacts were discovered including an ancient axe, a knife and a small electrum cross, comprising 79% silver and weighing two and a half pounds, that reads "Pro Anima Artorius" ("For The Soul Of Arthur"). This was no surprise to Wilson and Blackett who had already identified the church as an ancient and vitally important historical site dating to the 1st century. Other major Welsh kings are buried locally.

Lecture tours
Alan Wilson and his colleague lectured extensively in the United Kingdom, including Manchester and Jesus College at the University of Oxford, and Alan Wilson gave the prestigious Bemis Lecture in Boston in 1993. Research into claims that the Welsh settled in mid-western America in antiquity led to Wilson and his colleague, Baram Blackett, accepting invitations from American supporters to visit US sites of historical significance in 1994. The visit led to several television appearances and the deciphering of alphabetic inscriptions claimed to be in the old 'Coelbren' alphabet. Wilson also concluded that the many snake mounds in the American Mid-west were of ancient Khumric-British construction. Whilst in America, the two men were also commissioned to produce a detailed genealogy for the Bush family (friends and supporters of President George H. W. Bush).

Published works
    * Arthur, King of Glamorgan and Gwent (with Baram Blackett, MT Byrd Partnership, 1980)
    * Arthur and Charter of the Kings (with Baram Blackett, MT Byrd Partnership, 1981)
    * Arthur The War King (with Baram Blackett, MT Byrd Partnership, 1982-3)
    * Artorius Rex Discovered (with Baram Blackett, MT Byrd Partnership, 1986)
    * The Holy Kingdom (with Adrian Gilbert and Baram Blackett, Bantam, 1998)
    * King Arthur Conspiracy (with Grant Berkley and Baram Blackett, Trafford, 2005)
    * Moses in the Hieroglyphs (with Grant Berkley and Baram Blackett, Trafford, 2006)

« Reply #31 on: October 28, 2006, 09:24:43 AM »

Exclusive interview with Alan Wilson, co-author of seven books on Ancient British history with Baram Blackett.
Dated: Mon, 4 September 2006
« Reply #32 on: October 28, 2006, 09:26:09 AM »

Athrwys, King of Ergyng
(c.AD 618-c.655)
(Latin: Artorius; English: Arthur)

 Athrwys (or Arthwys) was the eldest son of King Meurig ap  Tewdrig of Gwent & Glywysing. He is generally supposed to have lived in the mid 7th century and Dr Wendy Davies suggests that he did not outlive his father. They may, however, have ruled jointly in the 640s & 50s, after Athrwys became King of Ergyng in right of his mother. Upon the death of his maternal grandfather, King Gwrgan Fawr, in about AD 645, Athrwys - presumably with the help of his father's armies - appears to have seized the throne of Ergyng from his uncles, Caradog & Morgan. He ruled there for about ten years before his death.

Athrwys may have made quite an impression as a young warrior as well as a king; for it seems likely that many Southern Welsh stories associated with High-King Arthur actually refer to King Athrwys. Particularly relevant are King Arthur's associations with Caer-Legeion-guar-Uisc (Caerleon) which was said to have been one of his major courts. This is, of course, deep in the heart of King Athrwys' home kingdom. Blackett & Wilson followed by Barber & Pykitt further argue that King Athrwys actually was the King Arthur by pushing his lifetime back to the traditional Arthurian period in the early 6th century. They suggest that either Athrwys or his father were buried on Mynydd-y-Gaer in Mid-Glamorgan.
« Reply #33 on: October 28, 2006, 10:06:21 AM »

Caerleon Excavation
Sites and places associated with Arthurian legend
The following is a list and assessment of sites and places associated with King Arthur and the Arthurian legend in general. Given the lack of concrete historical knowledge about one of the most potent figures in British mythology, it is unlikely that any definitive conclusions about the claims for these places will ever be established, nevertheless it is both interesting and important to try to evaluate the body of evidence which does exist and examine it critically. The earliest reference to Arthur is in Aneirin's poem Y Gododdin (c. 594). Another is in Taliesin's poem Journey to Deganwy, believed to have been composed in 547; while his fame may have increased in the intervening years, the facts about his life have become less discernible.

Roman Caerleon
Caerleon is a site of considerable archaeological importance, being the site of a Roman legionary fortress (it was the headquarters for Legio II Augusta from about 75 to 300 AD) and an iron age hill fort.

The name Caerleon is commonly thought to be from the Welsh for "fortress of the legion"; the Romans themselves called it Isca Silurum, "Usk of the Silures", after the Silures, the Celtic tribe that dwelt there.

Substantial excavated Roman remains can be seen, including the military amphitheatre, one of the most impressive in Britain, and the bath house, with a modern museum in situ above it. Both sites are administered by Cadw. There is a separate museum, part of the National Museums and Galleries of Wales complex, which exhibits finds from excavations throughout the village.

Because of its circular form, the unexcavated amphitheatre was known to locals as "King Arthur's Round Table", but there is no known connection. An initial investigation in 1909 showed the potential for a full-scale excavation of the structure, which began in 1926 and was supervised by Victor Nash-Williams. This revealed, among other things, that the amphitheatre had been built around 90AD, but had twice been partially reconstructed, once in the early part of the 2nd century AD, and again about a hundred years later. The arena is oval in shape, with eight entrances, and the stadium is thought to have had a capacity of around 6000.

Caerleon and Arthurian Legend
Caerleon is one of the sites most often connected with King Arthur's Camelot. There was no Camelot mentioned in the early Arthurian traditions recorded by Geoffrey of Monmouth, Wace, and Layamon. These early Arthurian authors say that Arthur's capital was in Caerleon, and even the later recaster of Arthurian material, Sir Thomas Malory, has Arthur re-crowned at "Carlion" (Caerleon). It has been suggested that the still-visible Roman amphitheatre at Caerleon is the source of the 'Round-Table' element of the tales, and was used for discussion and entertainment. (The "Camelot" reference originates with the French writer of courtly romance, Chr?tien de Troyes.)

Geoffrey of Monmouth writes of Caerleon in the mid 12th century:

    "When the feast of Whitsuntide began to draw near, Arthur, who was quite overjoyed by his great success, made up his mind to hold a plenary court at that season and place the crown of the kingdom on his head. He decided too, to summon to this feast the leaders who owed him homage, so that he could celebrate Whitsun with greater reverence and renew the closest pacts of peace with his chieftains. He explained to the members of his court what he was proposing to do and accepted their advice that he should carry out his plan in The City Of The Legions.

Situated as it is in Morgannwg (Glamorgan), on the River Usk, not far from the Severn Sea, in a most pleasant position, and being richer in material wealth than other townships, this city was eminently suitable for such a ceremony. The river which I have named flowed by it on one side, and up this the kings and princes who were to come from across the sea could be carried in a fleet of ships. On the other side, which was flanked by meadows and wooded groves, they had adorned the city with royal palaces, and by the gold-painted gables of its roofs it was a match for Rome."
(Historia Regum Britanniae "History of the Kings of Britain")

In another part of his work Geoffrey stated that Caerleon had an archbishop - and from the context we can deduce that this was a man with considerable power and influence:

"After the death of Uther Pendragon, the leaders of the Britons assembled from their various provinces in the town of Silchester and there suggested to Dubricus, the archbishop of the City Of The Legions, that as their King he should crown Arthur, son of Uther. He called the other bishops to him and bestowed the crown of the kingdom upon Arthur. Arthur was a young man only fifteen years old ..."

Caerleon also has later Arthurian literary associations, as the birthplace of the writer Arthur Machen who often used it as a location in his work. Alfred Lord Tennyson also wrote his Idylls of the King overlooking the Usk in a bay window of what is now the saloon bar of the Hanbury Arms public house.

Remains of the Roman Watchtower attached to the Hanbury Arms pub in Caerleon near the castle. Photograph copyright 1998 by Jeffrey L. Thomas

In Michael Morurgo's novel Arthur, High King if Britain, Caerleon is the castle where Arthur unknowingly commits incest with his half-sister Margause, resulting in the conception of his bastard son Mordred, who will later bring about his downfall.
« Reply #34 on: October 28, 2006, 03:53:51 PM »

The Historia Britonum, or The History of the Britons, is a historical work that was first written sometime shortly after AD 820. It purports to relate the history of Brythonnic inhabitants of Great Britain from earliest times. The text itself is a collection of excerpts, chronological calculations, glosses, and summaries based on earlier records -- many of which no longer exist.

Traditionally, the Historia Britonum is ascribed to be the work of Nennius, a Welsh monk of the ninth century. However, examination of the numerous recensions show that Gildas was also claimed as its author (since Gildas was the only historical author its scribes knew of), while others (such as the British Library manuscript Harleian 3859) do not name an author. Professor Dumville's researches have shown that the ascription of this work to Nennius originated in the tenth century in one branch of the manuscript transmission, created by a scribe seeking to root this work in the intellectual traditions of that time.

The Historia Britonum has also drawn attention because of its role in influencing the legends and myths surrounding King Arthur.

It has what appears to be a summary of a poem listing 12 battles of Arthur, some of which clearly are not properly identified with him:

    Then it was, that Arthur, with all the kings and military force of Britain, fought against the Saxons. And though there were many more noble than himself, yet he was twelve times chosen their commander, and was as often conqueror. The first battle in which he was engaged, was at the mouth of the river Glein. The second, third, fourth, and fifth, were on another river, by the Britons called Dubglas, in the region Linnuis. The sixth, on the river Bassas. The seventh in the wood Celidon, which the Britons call Cat Coit Celidon. The eighth was near Castle Gurnion, where Arthur bore the image of the Holy Virgin, mother of God, upon his shoulders, and through the power of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the holy Mary, put the Saxons to flight, and pursued them the whole day with great slaughter. The ninth was at the City of Legion, which is called Cair Leon. The tenth was on the banks of the river Tribruit. The eleventh was on the mountain Breguoin, which we call Cat Breguoin. The twelfth was a most severe contest, when Arthur penetrated to the hill of Badon. In this engagement, nine hundred and forty fell by his hand alone, no one but the Lord affording him assistance. In all these engagements the Britons were successful. For no strength can avail against the will of the Almighty.
        (Chapter 56)

The City of the Legion is identified with either Chester or Caerleon.
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« Reply #35 on: November 22, 2006, 12:37:35 PM »

The Legend of King Tewdrig of Penwith, Cornwall - Arthur's Paternal Grandfather

by J. Henry Harris

K I N G   T E W D R I G
and the Saints

     Most of the saints came to Cornwall, dropping little bits of fame and reputation as they travelled from parish to parish, and from holy well to holy well. They were born under a travelling planet, "neither bred where born, nor beneficed where bred, nor buried where beneficed", but wandering ever. Cornwall is known as the "Land of Saints", and the county teams are usually Saints. For example The Saints verses Week-enders. Six goals to three. Five to one on Saints. It sounds a bit curious, but you get used to it. The true story of the saints is a little mixed; the giants and the piskies come in, and wherever the saints went there was sure to be trouble.

     Irish saints swarmed to Cornwall as thick as flies in summer in the reign of Tewdrig the King, who built is castle on the sands at Hayle. It is there now, only modern technology has yet to be used to make it visible. This Tewdrig was a good old sort, who was respectfully called Theodoric by the saints as long as he had anything to offer them. However, the saints let it be known, in the distressful land, that they had struck oil, and so their friends and relatives swarmed across the Irish Sea. They came in such crowds that the King was in danger of being eaten out of house and home. He summoned the Keeper of the Victuals, and asked for a report. He was given it, and it was very short and sad - as sad in its way as an army stores inquiry. Every living thing in air and field and wood had been devoured. All the salted meat in the barrels had disappeared, "and if you don't stop this immigration of Irish saints," said the unhappy official, "we shall be eaten up alive." The good King became serious. Whilst they were talking, a messenger came with the news that another great batch of saints had come ashore. The King and his Keeper of the Victuals - when there were any to keep - looked at each other solemnly.
"Put the castle in mourning," said the King. When the new arrivals danced up to the gate, with teeth well set for action and stomachs empty, the Keeper of the Victuals spoke sadly.
"The good King died," he said, "the moment he heard that more saints had arrived. Those who came first ate all his substance and emptied his barrels, and there is nothing left of him now but bones. The last words of the good King were, "Give them my bones"." The Keeper of the Victuals turned, as though to fetch the good King's bones for the saints to feast on. They, however, departed, one and all, and spread the story. The king played the game and ordered his own funeral, and when the time came, he got up and looked through a peep-hole to see the procession.

     "The saints," he said, "have spared my bones, but they will surely come and see the last of me." But he was mistaken. The story that all the barrels were empty spread, and there wasn't a saint left in the land on the morrow. Then the King showed himself to his own people, and a law was passed entitled "An Act against Alien Saints' Immigration". The country recovered its ancient prosperity, and the Keeper of the Victuals filled the barrels with salted meat. There were wild birds in the air, and beasts in the field, and the King once more feasted in his own hall.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Saint Tewdrig was a 7th century King of Glywysing (Glamorgan) and Gwent in South Wales who was martyred fighting the Anglo-Saxons.

Tewdrig was the son of the previous king, either Llywarch or Teithfall, and a supposed benefactor of the church of Llandaff. He resigned the government to his son, Meurig, in order to devote himself to religion and contemplation at Tintern in Monmouthshire. However, when the Saxons, under King Ceolwulf, crossed the Severn and pressed hard upon Meurig, Tewdrig left his solitude and gained a victory at the head of his old troops, but was killed in the process. A church was erected over his grave and called Marthyr Tewdrig. This is now Mathern, at the junction of the Rivers Wye and Severn. He was the grandfather of Athrwys ap Meurig.


St. Tewdrig,
King of Gwent & Glywysing
(Latin: Theodoricius; English: Theodoric)

St. Tewdrig was the son of King Nynniaw of Gwent's son, Llywarch. He was King of Gwent in the early 7th century, but little is known of his reign. In later life, he abdicated in favour of his son, Meurig, and became a hermit at Din-Teyryn (Tintern). Soon afterward, however, around 630, the Saxons invaded Gwent. The local monasteries were particularly badly hit by their raids and so Tewdrig decided to come out of retirement and take up his sword once more to defend the church.

Together with his son, the two Kings pushed back the Saxon menace, but Tewdrig was wounded in the Battle of Pont-y-Saeson and had to be taken to Flat Holm in the Bristol Channel for treatment. An ox-cart was called to take him there but, on their journey, the oxen stopped themselves at a miraculous spring (now known as St.Tewdrig's Well). Here Tewdrig's wounds were cleansed and here he died. King Meurig built a great church on the spot and enshrined his father's saintly body there. The place became known Merthyr-Teyryn (Mathern) after the Martyred-Prince.



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« Reply #36 on: November 22, 2006, 01:27:37 PM »

Very nice, Bart  Cool

If it ever comes to pass the the UK ends as Ulster, Scotland, Wales, the Isle of Man and the various Channel Islands (and overseas territories) decide to go their own way, then England could still be a United Kingdom, for it is composed of more kingdoms than I can remember. Maybe then we could have an English monarchy again, too.

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« Reply #37 on: November 25, 2006, 02:39:47 AM »

We now have this fine and illustrated piece The Death of Arthur by Alan Hassell, who has kindly offered us more of his work, which I look forward to publishing here.

« Reply #38 on: December 24, 2006, 02:21:41 PM »

I would like to look again at Historia Brittonum (History Of The Britons) and what it says regarding Arthur and Arthurian Britain.

First, the author.


Nennius, or Nemnivus, is either of two shadowy personages traditionally associated with the history of Wales. The better known of the two is Nennius, the student of Elvodugus. Elvodugus is commonly identified with the bishop Elfoddw of Gwynedd, who convinced the rest of the Welsh portion of Celtic Christianity to celebrate Easter on the same date as the other Catholics in Britain in 768, and is later stated by the Annales Cambriae to have died in 809. This Nennius is traditionally stated as having lived in the early 9th century, and is identified in one group of manuscripts of the Historia Britonum as the author of that work. The careful scholarship of professor David N. Dumville on this text has instead shown that the manuscripts that make this claim come from an exemplar dating to the later eleventh century, far later than the exemplars of other versions of this manuscript ? as well as over two hundred years after this Nennius is supposed to have lived. However, a number of historians still refer to the author of either the original text of the Historia Brittonum, or this specific recension, as Nennius, or pseudo-Nennius.

The other Nemnivus, or Nennius, is mentioned in a Welsh manuscript of the 9th century. In response to the snide accusation of a Saxon scholar that the Britons had no alphabet of their own, this Nemnivus is said to have invented an alphabet on the fly in order to refute this insult. The alphabet Nemnivus is said to have invented is preserved in this manuscript, and according to Nora K. Chadwick it is derived from the Old English futhark or runic writing. "Indeed the names given to some of his letters seem to show evidence of an actual knowledge of their Saxon names", Chadwick concludes.

Some conclude that these two figures are the same individual. Others argue that drawing such a conclusion is not warranted, since Nennius, the student of Elvodugus, is arguably fictional, and since the histories of both Wales and Britain over the period in question are quite incomplete.

History Of The Britons (Historia Brittonum), by Nennius


1. Nennius, the lowly minister and servant of the servants of God, by
the grace of God, disciple of St. Elbotus, to all the followers of
truth sendeth health.

Be it known to your charity, that being dull in intellect and rude of
speech, I have presumed to deliver these things in the Latin tongue, not
trusting to my own learning, which is little or none at all, but partly
from traditions of our ancestors, partly from writings and monuments
of the ancient inhabitants of Britain, partly from the annals of the
Romans, and the chronicles of the sacred fathers, Isidore, Hieronymus,
Prosper, Eusebius, and from the histories of the Scots and Saxons,
although our enemies, not following my own inclinations, but, to the
best of my ability, obeying the commands of my seniors; I have lispingly
put together this history from various sources, and have endeavored,
from shame, to deliver down to posterity the few remaining ears of corn
about past transactions, that they might not be trodden under foot,
seeing that an ample crop has been snatched away already by the hostile
reapers of foreign nations. For many things have been in my way, and I,
to this day, have hardly been able to understand, even superficially, as
was necessary, the sayings of other men; much less was I able in my own
strength, but like a barbarian, have I murdered and defiled the
language of others. But I bore about with me an inward wound, and I
was indignant, that the name of my own people, formerly famous and
distinguished, should sink into oblivion, and like smoke be dissipated.
But since, however, I had rather myself be the historian of the Britons
than nobody, although so many are to be found who might much more
satisfactorily discharge the labour thus imposed on me; I humbly entreat
my readers, whose ears I may offend by the inelegance of my words, that
they will fulfil the wish of my seniors, and grant me the easy task of
listening with candour to my history. For zealous efforts very often
fail: but bold enthusiasm, were it in its power, would not suffer me to
fail. May, therefore, candour be shown where the inelegance of my words
is insufficient, and may the truth of this history, which my rustic
tongue has ventured, as a kind of plough, to trace out in furrows, lose
none of its influence from that cause, in the ears of my hearers. For it
is better to drink a wholesome draught of truth from the humble vessel,
than poison mixed with honey from a golden goblet.

2. And do not be loath, diligent reader, to winnow my chaff, and lay up
the wheat in the storehouse of your memory: for truth regards not who
is the speaker, nor in what manner it is spoken, but that the thing be
true; and she does not despise the jewel which she has rescued from the
mud, but she adds it to her former treasures.

For I yield to those who are greater and more eloquent than myself, who,
kindled with generous ardour, have endeavoured by Roman eloquence to
smooth the jarring elements of their tongue, if they have left unshaken
any pillar of history which I wished to see remain. This history
therefore has been compiled from a wish to benefit my inferiors, not
from envy of those who are superior to me, in the 858th year of our
Lord's incarnation, and in the 24th year of Mervin, king of the Britons,
and I hope that the prayers of my betters will be offered up for me in
recompence of my labour. But this is sufficient by way of preface. I
shall obediently accomplish the rest to the utmost of my power.


Here begins the apology of Nennius, the historiographer of the Britons,
of the race of the Britons.

3. I, Nennius, disciple of St. Elbotus, have endeavoured to write some
extracts which the dulness of the British nation had cast away, because
teachers had no knowledge, nor gave any information in their books about
this island of Britain. But I have got together all that I could find as
well from the annals of the Romans as from the chronicles of the sacred
fathers, Hieronymus, Eusebius, Isidorus, Prosper, and from the annals of
the Scots and Saxons, and from our ancient traditions. Many teachers
and scribes have attempted to write this, but somehow or other have
abandoned it from its difficulty, either on account of frequent deaths,
or the often recurring calamities of war. I pray that every reader
who shall read this book, may pardon me, for having attempted, like a
chattering jay, or like some weak witness, to write these things, after
they had failed. I yield to him who knows more of these things than I

7. The island of Britain derives its name from Brutus, a Roman consul.
Taken from the south-west point it inclines a little towards the west,
and to its northern extremity measures eight hundred miles, and is in
breadth two hundred. It contains thirty three cities,(1) viz.

     1. Cair ebrauc (York).
     2. Cair ceint (Canterbury).
     3. Cair gurcoc (Anglesey?).
     4. Cair guorthegern (2)
     5. Cair custeint (Carnarvon).
     6. Cair guoranegon (Worcester).
     7. Cair segeint (Silchester).
     8. Cair guin truis (Norwich, or Winwick).
     9. Cair merdin (Caermarthen).
     10. Cair peris (Porchester).
     11. Cair lion (Caerleon-upon-Usk).
     12. Cair mencipit (Verulam).
     13. Cair caratauc (Catterick).
     14. Cair ceri (Cirencester).
     15. Cair glout (Gloucester).
     16. Cair luillid (Carlisle).
     17. Cair grant (Grantchester, now Cambridge).
     18. Cair daun (Doncaster), or Cair dauri (Dorchester).
     19. Cair britoc (Bristol).
     20. Cair meguaid (Meivod).
     21. Cair mauiguid (Manchester).
     22. Cair ligion (Chester).
     23. Cair guent (Winchester, or Caerwent, in Monmouthshire).
     24. Cair collon (Colchester, or St. Colon, Cornwall).
     25. Cair londein (London).
     26. Cair guorcon (Worren, or Woran, in Pembrokeshire).
     27. Cair lerion (Leicester).
     28. Cair draithou (Drayton).
     29. Cair pensavelcoit (Pevensey, in Sussex).
     30. Cairtelm (Teyn-Grace, in Devonshire).
     31. Cair Urnahc (Wroxeter, in Shropshire).
     32. Cair colemion (Camelet, in Somersetshire).
     33. Cair loit coit (Lincoln).
     (1) V.R. Twenty-eight, twenty-one.
     (2) Site unknown.

These are the names of the ancient cities of the island of Britain. It
has also a vast many promontories, and castles innumerable, built of
brick and stone. Its inhabitants consist of four different people; the
Scots, the Picts, the Saxons and the ancient Britons.

8. Three considerable islands belong to it; one, on the south, opposite
the Armorican shore, called Wight;* another between Ireland and Britain,
called Eubonia or Man; and another directly north, beyond the Picts,
named Orkney; and hence it was anciently a proverbial expression, in
reference to its kings and rulers, "He reigned over Britain and its
three islands."

50. St. Germanus, after his death, returned into his own country. *At
that time, the Saxons greatly increased in Britain, both in strength and
numbers. And Octa, after the death of his father Hengist, came from the
sinistral part of the island to the kingdom of Kent, and from him have
proceeded all the kings of that province, to the present period.

     * V.R. All this to the word 'Amen,' in other MSS. is placed
     after the legend of St. Patrick.

In illo tempore Saxones inualescebant in
multitudine et crescebant in brittannia.
Mortuo autem Hengisto octha filius eius transi-
uit de sinistrali parte brittanie ad reg
-num cantorum. et de ipso orti sunt reges cantorum.
Tunc arthur pugnabat contra illos.
in illis diebus cum regibus brittonum. sed ipse dux erat

Then it was, that the magnanimous Arthur, with all the kings and
military force of Britain, fought against the Saxons. And though there
were many more noble than himself, yet he was twelve times chosen their
commander, and was as often conqueror. The first battle in which he
was engaged, was at the mouth of the river Gleni.(1) The second,
third, fourth, and fifth, were on another river, by the Britons called
Duglas,(2) in the region Linuis. The sixth, on the river Bassas.(3) The
seventh in the wood Celidon, which the Britons call Cat Coit Celidon.(4)
The eighth was near Gurnion castle,(5) where Arthur bore the image of
the Holy Virgin,(6) mother of God, upon his shoulders, and through the
power of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the holy Mary, put the Saxons to
flight, and pursued them the whole day with great slaughter.(7) The
ninth was at the City of Legion,(8) which is called Cair Lion. The tenth
was on the banks of the river Trat Treuroit.(9) The eleventh was on the
mountain Breguoin, which we call Cat Bregion.(10) The twelfth was a most
severe contest, when Arthur penetrated to the hill of Badon.(11) In this
engagement, nine hundred and forty fell by his hand alone, no one but
the Lord affording him assistance. In all these engagements the Britons
were successful. For no strength can avail against the will of the

     (1) Supposed by some to be the Glem, in Lincolnshire; but
     most probably the Glen, in the northern part of

     (2) Or Dubglas.  The little river Dunglas, which formed the
     southern boundary of Lothian.  Whitaker says, the river
     Duglas, in Lancashire, near Wigan.

     (3) Not a river, but an isolated rock in the Frith of Forth,
     near the town of North Berwick, called "The Bass."  Some
     think it is the river Lusas, in Hampshire.

     (4) The Caledonian forest; or the forest of Englewood,
     extending from Penrith to Carlisle.

     (5) Variously supposed to be in Cornwall, or Binchester in
     Durham, but most probably the Roman station of Garionenum,
     near Yarmouth, in Norfolk.

     (6) V.R. The image of the cross of Christ, and of the
     perpetual virgin St. Mary.

     (7) V.R. For Arthur proceeded to Jerusalem, and there made a
     cross to the size of the Saviour's cross, and there it was
     consecrated, and for three successive days he fasted,
     watched, and prayed, before the Lord's cross, that the Lord
     would give him the victory, by this sign, over the heathen;
     which also took place, and he took with him the image of St.
     Mary, the fragments of which are still preserved in great
     veneration at Wedale, in English Wodale, in Latin Vallis-
     doloris.  Wodale is a village in the province of Lodonesia,
     but now of the jurisdiction of the bishop of St. Andrew's,
     of Scotland, six miles on the west of that heretofore noble
     and eminent monastery of Meilros.

     (8) Exeter.

     (9) Or Ribroit, the Brue, in Somersetshire; or the Ribble,
     in Lancashire.

     (10) Or Agned Cathregonion, Cadbury, in Somersetshire; or

     (11) Bath.

The more the Saxons were vanquished, the more they sought for new
supplies of Saxons from Germany; so that kings, commanders, and military
bands were invited over from almost every province. And this practice
they continued till the reign of Ida, who was the son of Eoppa, he,
of the Saxon race, was the first king in Bernicia, and in Cair Ebrauc

When Gratian Aequantius was consul at rome, because then the whole world
was governed by the Roman consuls, the Saxons were received by Vortigern
in the year of our Lord four hundred and forty-seven, and to the year
in which we now write, five hundred and forty-seven. And whosoever shall
read herein may receive instruction, the Lord Jesus Christ affording
assistance, who, co-eternal with the Father and the Holy Ghost, lives
and reigns for ever and ever. Amen.

In those days Saint Patrick was captive among the Scots. His master's
name was Milcho, to whom he was a swineherd for seven years. When he
had attained the age of seventeen he gave him his liberty. By the divine
impulse, he applied himself to reading of the Scriptures, and afterwards
went to Rome; where, replenished with the Holy Spirit, he continued a
great while, studying the sacred mysteries of those writings. During
his continuance there, Palladius, the first bishop, was sent by pope
Celestine to convert the Scots (the Irish). But tempests and signs from
God prevented his landing, for no one can arrive in any country, except
it be allowed from above; altering therefore his course from Ireland, he
came to Britain and died in the land of the Picts.*

     * At Fordun, in the district of Mearns, in Scotland-Usher.

51. The death of Palladius being known, the Roman patricians, Theodosius
and Valentinian, then reigning, pope Celestine sent Patrick to convert
the Scots to the faith of the Holy Trinity; Victor, the angel of God,
accompanying, admonishing, and assisting him, and also the bishop

Germanus then sent the ancient Segerus with him as a venerable and
praiseworthy bishop, to king Amatheus,(1) who lived near, and who had
prescience of what was to happen; he was consecrated bishop in the
reign of that king by the holy pontiff,(2) assuming the name of Patrick,
having hitherto been known by that of Maun; Auxilius, Isserninus, and
other brothers were ordained with him to inferior degrees.

     (1) V.R. Germanus "sent the elder Segerus with him to a
     wonderful man, the holy bishop Amathearex."  Another MS.
     "Sent the elder Segerus, a bishop, with him to Amatheorex."

     (2) V.R. "Received the episcopal degree from the holy bishop
     Amatheorex."  Another MS. "Received the episcopal degree
     from Matheorex and the holy bishop."

52. Having distributed benedictions, and perfected all in the name of
the Holy Trinity, he embarked on the sea which is between the Gauls
and the Britons; and after a quick passage arrived in Britain, where he
preached for some time. Every necessary preparation being made, and the
angel giving him warning, he came to the Irish Sea. And having filled
the ship with foreign gifts and spiritual treasures, by the permission
of God he arrived in Ireland, where he baptized and preached.

53. From the beginning of the world, to the fifth year of king Logiore,
when the Irish were baptized, and faith in the unity of the individual
Trinity was published to them, are five thousand three hundred and
thirty years.

54. Saint Patrick taught the gospel in foreign nations for the space of
forty years. Endued with apostolical powers, he gave sight to the blind,
cleansed the lepers, gave hearing to the deaf, cast out devils, raised
nine from the dead, redeemed many captives of both sexes at his own
charge, and set them free in the name of the Holy Trinity. He taught the
servants of God, and he wrote three hundred and sixty-five canonical and
other books relating to the catholic faith. He founded as many churches,
and consecrated the same number of bishops, strengthening them with the
Holy Ghost. He ordained three thousand presbyters; and converted and
baptized twelve thousand persons in the province of Connaught. And, in
one day baptized seven kings, who were the seven sons of Amalgaid.(1) He
continued fasting forty days and nights, on the summit of the mountain
Eli, that is Cruachan-Aichle;(2) and preferred three petitions to God
for the Irish, that had embraced the faith. The Scots say, the first
was, that he would receive every repenting sinner, even at the latest
extremity of life; the second, that they should never be exterminated
by barbarians; and the third, that as Ireland(3) will be overflowed with
water, seven years before the coming of our Lord to judge the quick
and the dead, the crimes of the people might be washed away through
his intercession, and their souls purified at the last day. He gave the
people his benediction from the upper part of the mountain, and going
up higher, that he might pray for them; and that if it pleased God,
he might see the effects of his labours, there appeared to him an
innumerable flock of birds of many coulours, signifying the number of
holy persons of both sexes of the Irish nation, who should come to him
as their apostle at the day of judgment, to be presented before the
tribunal of Christ. After a life spent in the active exertion of good
to mankind, St. Patrick, in a healthy old age, passed from this world to
the Lord, and changing this life for a better, with the saints and elect
of God he rejoices for evermore.

     (1) King of Connaught.

     (2) A mountain in the west of Connaught, county of Mayo, now
     called Croagh-Patrick.

     (3) V.R. that no Irishman may be alive on the day of
     judgment, because they will be destroyed seven years before
     in honour of St. Patrick.

55. Saint Patrick resembled Moses in four particulars. The angel spoke
to him in the burning bush. He fasted forty days and forty nights upon
the mountain. He attained the period of one hundred and twenty years.
No one knows his sepulchre, nor where he was buried; sixteen(1) years he
was in captivity. In his twenty-fifth year, he was consecrated bishop by
Saint Matheus,(2) and he was eighty-five years the apostle of the Irish.
It might be profitable to treat more at large of the life of this saint,
but it is now time to conclude this epitome of his labours.(3)

     (1) V.R. Fifteen.

     (2) V.R. By the holy bishop Amatheus.

     (3) Here ends the Vatican MS. collated by Mr. Gunn.

(Here endeth the life of the holy bishop, Saint Patrick.) (After this,
the MSS. give as 56, the legend of king Arthur, which in this edition
occurs in 50.)

51. The death of Palladius being known, the Roman patricians, Theodosius
and Valentinian, then reigning, pope Celestine sent Patrick to convert
the Scots to the faith of the Holy Trinity; Victor, the angel of God,
accompanying, admonishing, and assisting him, and also the bishop
« Reply #39 on: December 24, 2006, 02:37:33 PM »

The earliest documentary reference to Arthur by name occurs in the Welsh poem Y Gododdin, a poem which commemorates British warriors who died in a battle at "Catraeth," probably Catterick in modern Yorkshire. The period to which the poem refers is the 5th to 6th centuries, when the native Britons fought against Germanic Saxon invaders. "Arthur" appears simply as a positive comparison to one of the dead warriors being eulogized.

Ef guant tratrigant echassaf      He pierced over three hundred of the finest
ef ladhei auet ac eithaf                He slew both the centre and the flanks
oid guiu e mlaen llu llarahaf      He was worthy in the front of a most generous army
godolei o heit meirch e gayaf    He gave out gifts of a herd of steeds in the winter
gochore brein du ar uur             He fed black ravens on the wall
caer ceni bei ef arthur                Of the fortress, although he was no Arthur
rug ciuin uerthi ig disur            He gave support in battle
ig kynnor guernor guaurdur.   In the forefront, an alder-shield was Gwawrddur
« Reply #40 on: February 20, 2007, 12:50:35 PM »

A Research Framework for the Archaeology of Wales
East and North East Wales Archaeological Resource Audit
Watching briefs: Mynydd y Gaer Camp, watching brief 1997

A spokesperson at the Council for British Archaeology said, "Clearly it is very difficult to interpret early Welsh sources in relation to what is on the ground today.

"Although aerial photographs can be very revealing they can be very deceiving too. Without ground surveys and geophysical surveys to establish whether there were buried features, it would be difficult to say for certain whether it was an ancient site.

"That would be the next stage of investigation."

Landscape Assessment:
The southern half of the area is dominated by Mynydd y Gaer, this comprises an
area characterised by enclosed upland of a moderately late date.
Numerous Bronze Age cairns, singularly, in pairs and in cemeteries, adorn the
elevated slopes of Mynydd y Gaer and Foel Fynyddau signifying the importance of
this area as a funerary and ritual landscape. Later during the Iron Age the summit
and elevated slopes of Mynydd y Gaer was chosen as a situation for the hillforts
enclosures of Buarth y Gaer, Gaer Fawr, and Craig Ty Isaf. This represent a highly organised landscape during late prehistory, a theme that continues into the later

Much of the medieval landscape owes to the strong ecclesiastical presence of both
the Margam and Neath Abbeys. A reoccurring theme is the position and regularity of
medieval platform houses and longhuts on the elevated mountain slopes, one
suggestion is that they are seasonal settlements or hafodydd in use during the
milder parts of the year when stock is grazed on the higher pasture.
The 1st edition OS (1884) records only the partial enclosure of and Mynydd y Gaer,
and Foel Fynyddau remained unenclosed until the 20th century and even then the
area to the southeast of the mountain, beneath the forestry, has remained

Consortium of South Wales Valleys Authorities: Landscape and Visual Analysis
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« Reply #41 on: February 20, 2007, 04:34:52 PM »

It definitely appears to be an ancient site, and an important one, judging from the aerial. This will be very interesting.

- Bart

Learning is a treasure which accompanies its owner everywhere.
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« Reply #42 on: February 20, 2007, 04:39:55 PM »

I think that would be an excellent place to do a non-intrusive survey with our gear, don't you?

« Reply #43 on: February 20, 2007, 05:14:23 PM »

Mynydd y Gaer

I agree that it would be nice to survey this with some of our geophysical kit.

Yes, this is an attractive proposition.

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« Reply #44 on: March 02, 2007, 07:06:25 AM »

Annales Cambriae

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Annales Cambriae, or The Annals of Wales, believed to date from 970, is a chronicle of events thought to be significant occurring during the years 447-954. It is widely accepted that the first entry (listed "Year 1") was made in 447; however, some sources claim that some entries may have been 'interpolated' in later years (details, names etc. added). Despite the name, it does not only record events in Wales, but also mentions events in Ireland, Cornwall and England and sometimes further afield.

The Annals were compiled at the behest of Owain ap Hywel, son of Hywel Dda (who himself had codified Welsh law in the Laws of Hywel).

 Source for Arthurian history

   There are two entries in the Annals on King Arthur, one on Mordred and one on Merlin. These entries have been presented in the past as proof to the existence of Arthur and Merlin, although that view is no longer widely held. It is interesting to note that all the other people mentioned in the chronicle are real.

Entries on Arthur, Mordred and Merlin:

Year 72 (c. 516) The Battle of Badon, in which Arthur carried the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ on his shoulders for three days and three nights and the Britons were victors.
Year 93 (c. 537) The battle of Camlann, in which Arthur and Medraut fell, and there was death in Britain and in Ireland.

Year 126 (c. 573) The Battle of Arfderydd, between the sons of Eliffer, and Gwenddolau son of Ceidio; in which battle Gwenddolau fell; and Merlin went mad.


English Translation of Annales Cambriae
Medieval Sourcebook:
The Annales Cambriae 447-954
(The Annals of Wales)

447      ? Days as dark as night.?      
453      Easter altered on the Lord's Day by Pope Leo, Bishop of Rome.      
454      St. Brigid is born.      
457      St. Patrick goes to the Lord.      
458      St. David is born in the thirtieth year after Patrick left Menevia.      
468      The death of Bishop Benignus.      
501      Bishop Ebur rests in Christ, he was 350 years old.      
516      The Battle of Badon, in which Arthur carried the Cross of our Lord Jesus
                          Christ for three days and three nights on his shoulders and the Britons were the victors.      
521      St. Columba is born. The death of St. Brigid.      
537      The battle of Camlann, in which Arthur and Medraut fell: and there was plague
                          in Britain and Ireland.      
544      The sleep [death] of Ciaran.      
547      The great death [plague] in which Maelgwn, king of Gwynedd died.
                          ?Thus they say 'The long sleep of Maelgwn in the court of Rhos'.
                          Then was the yellow plague.?      
558      The death of Gabr?n, son of Dungart.      
562      Columba went to Britain.      
565      ?The voyage of Gildas to Ireland.?      
569      ?The 'Synod of Victory' was held between the Britons.?      
570      Gildas ?wisest of Britons? died.      
573      The battle of Arfderydd ?between the sons of Eliffer and Gwenddolau son of Ceidio;
                          in which battle Gwenddolau fell; Merlin went mad.?      
574      The sleep [death] of Brendan of Birr.      
580      Gwrgi and Peredur ?sons of Elifert? died.      
584      Battle against the Isle of Man and the burial of Daniel of the Bangors.      
589      The conversion of Constantine [king of Britain] to the Lord.      
594      ?Aethelbert reigned in England.?      
595      The death of Columba.      
      The death of king Dunod ?son of Pabo.?      
      Augustine and Mellitus converted the English to Christ.      
601      The synod of Urbs Legionis [Chester].      
      Gregory died in Christ and also bishop David of Moni Iudeorum.      
606      The burial of bishop Cynog.      
607      The death of Aidan son of Gabr?n      
612      The death of Kentigern and bishop Dyfrig.      
613      The battle of Caer Legion [Chester]. And there died Selyf son of Cynan. And Iago
                          son of Beli slept [died].      
616      Ceredig died.      
617      Edwin begins his reign.      
624      The sun is covered [eclipsed].      
626      Edwin is baptized, and Rhun son of Urien baptized him.      
627      Belin dies.      
629      The beseiging of king Cadwallon in the island of Glannauc.      
630      Gwyddgar comes and does not return. On the Kalends of January the battle of Meigen;
                          and there Edwin was killed with his two sons; but Cadwallon was the victor.      
631      The battle of Cantscaul in which Cadwallon fell.      
632      The slaughter of the [river] Severn and the death of Idris.      
644      The battle of Cogfry in which Oswald king of the Northmen and Eawa king of the Mercians fell.      
645      The hammering of the region of Dyfed, when the monastery of David was burnt.      
649      ?Slaughter in Gwent.?      
650      The rising of a star.      
656      The slaughter of Campus Gaius.      
657      Penda killed.      
658      Oswy came and took plunder.      
661      Cummine the tall died.      
662      Brocmail ?the tusked ? dies.      
665      The first celebration of Easter among the Saxons. The second battle of Badon. Morgan dies.      
669      Oswy, king of the Saxons, dies.      
676      A star of marvelous brightness was seen shining throughout the whole world.      
682      A great plague in Britain, in which Cadwaladr son of Cadwallon dies.      
683      A plague ?was? in Ireland.      
684      A great earthquake in the Isle of Man.      
689      The rain turned to blood in Britain, and ?in Ireland? milk and butter turned to blood.      
704      Aldfrith king of the Saxons died. The sleep of Adomn?n.      
714      Night was as bright as day. Pepin the elder [actually Pepin II, of Heristal],
                          king of the Franks, died in Christ.      
717      Osred king of the Saxons dies.      
718      The consecration of the church of the archangel Michael ?on mount Gargano.?      
721      A hot summer.      
722      Beli son of Elffin dies. And the battle of Hehil among the Cornish,
                          the battle of Garth Maelog, the battle of Pencon among the south Britons,
                          and the Britons were the victors in those three battles.      
728      The battle of mount Carno.      
735      Bede the priest sleeps.      
736      Oengus king of the Picts died.      
750      Battle between the Picts and the Briton, that is the battle of Mocetauc.
                          And their king Talorgan is killed by the Britions.      
754      Rhodri king of the Britons dies.      
757      Ethelbalk king of the Saxons dies.      
760      A battle between the Britons and the Saxons, that is the battle of Hereford and Dyfnwal son of Tewdwr dies.      
768      Easter is changed among the Britons ?on the Lord's day ?, Elfoddw, servant of God, emending it.      
775      Ffernfael son of Ithael dies.      
776      Cinaed king of the Picts dies.      
777      Abbot Cuthbert dies.      
778      The devastation of the South Britons by Offa.      
784      The devastation of Britain by Offa in the summer.      
796      ?Devastation by Rheinwg son of Offa ? The first coming of the gentiles
                          [Norsemen] among the southern Irish.      
797      Offa king of the Mercians and Maredudd king of the Demetians die, and the battle of Rhuddlan.      
798      Caradog king of Gwynedd is killed by the Saxons.      
807      Arthen king of Ceredigion dies. ?Solar eclipse?      
808      Rhain king of the Demetians and Cadell ?king? of Powys die.      
809      Elfoddw archbishop in the Gwynedd region went to the Lord.      
810      ?The moon covered ?. Mynyw burnt. ?Death of cattle in Britain.?      
811      Owain son of Maredudd dies.      
812      The fortress of Degannwy is struck by lightning and burnt.      
813      Battle between Hywel ?and Cynan. Hywel? was the victor.      
814      There was great thunder and it caused many fires. Tryffin son of Rhain died.
                          And Gruffydd son of Cyngen is killed by treachery by his brother Elisedd after an
                          interval of two months. Hywel triumphed over the island of Mona and he drove
                         Cynan from there with a great loss of his own army.      
816      Hywel was again expelled from Mona. Cynan the king dies. ?Saxons invaded the
                          mountains of Eryri and the kingdom of Rhufoniog?.      
817      The battle of Llan-faes.      
818      ?Cenwulf devastated the Dyfed region.?      
822      The fortress of Degannwy is destroyed by the Saxons and they took the kingdom
                          of Powys into their own control.      
825      Hywel dies.      
831      ?Lunar eclipse.? Laudent died and Sadyrnfyw Hael of Mynyw died.      
840      Nobis the bishop ruled Mynyw.      
842      Idwallon dies.      
844      Merfyn dies. The battle of Cetill.      
848      The battle of Ffinnant. Ithael king of Gwent was killed by the men of Brycheiniog.      
849      Meurig was killed by Saxons.      
850      Cynin is killed by the gentiles.      
853      Mona laid waste by black gentiles.      
856      Kenneth king of the Picts died. And Jonathan prince of Abergele dies.      
860      Catgueithen was expelled.      
864      Duda laid Glywysing waste.      
865      Cian of Nanhyfer died.      
866      The city of York was laid waste, that is the battle with the black gentiles.      
869      The battle of Bryn Onnen.      
870      The fortress of Alt Clud was broken by the gentiles.      
871      Gwgon king of Ceredigion was drowned.      
873      Nobis ?the bishop? and Meurig die. The battle of Bannguolou.      
874      ?Llunferth the bishop consecrated.?      
875      Dungarth king of Cernyw ?that is of the Cornish? was drowned.      
876      The battle of Sunday in Mona.      
877      Rhodri and his son Gwriad is killed by the Saxons.      
878      Aed son of Neill dies.      
880      The battle of Conwy. Vengeance for Rhodri at God's hand. ?The battle of Cynan.?      
882      Catgueithen died.      
885      Hywel died in Rome.      
887      Cerball died.      
889      Suibne the wisest of the Irish died.      
892      Hyfaidd dies.      
894      Anarawd came with the Angles and laid waste Ceredigion and Ystrad Tywi.      
895      The Northmen came and laid waste Lloegr and Bycheiniog and Gwent and Gwynllywiog.      
896      ?Bread failed in Ireland. Vermin like moles with two teeth fell from the air and ate
                          everything up; they were driven out by fasting and prayer.?      
898      ?Athelstan king of the Saxons died.?      
900      Alfred king of the Gewissi dies.      
902      Igmund came to Mona and took Maes Osfeilion.      
903      ?Merfyn son of Rhodri died and ? Llywarch son of Hyfaidd dies.      
904      Rhodri ?sone of Hyfaidd ? was beheaded in Arwystli.      
906      The battle of Dinmeir and Mynyw was broken.      
907      ?Bishop ? Gorchywyl dies ? and king Cormac?.      
908      ?Bishop ? Asser died.      
909      King Cadell son of Rhodri dies.      
913      Ohter comes ?to Britain?.      
915      Anarawd king ?of the Britons? dies.      
917      Queen Aethelflaed died.      
919      King Clydog was killed.      
921      The battle of Dinas Newydd.      
928      Hywel journeyed to Rome. ?Helen died.?      
935      ?Gruffydd son of Owain died.?      
938      The battle of Brune.      
939      Hyfaidd son of Clydog, and Meurig, died.      
941      Aethelstan ?king of the Saxons? died.      
942      King Afloeg dies.      
943      Cadell son of Arthfael was poisoned. And Idwal ?son of Rhodri ? and his son Elisedd are killed by the Saxons.      
944      Llunferth bishop in Mynyw died.      
945      ?Bishop Morlais died.?      
946      Cyngen son of Elisedd was poisoned. And Eneuris bishop in Mynyw died. And strathclyde was laid wasted by the Saxons.      
947      Edmund king of the Saxons was killed.      
950      Hywel king of the Britons ?called the Good? died.      
951      And Cadwgan son of Owain is killed by the Saxons. And the battle of Carno ?between the
                          sons of Hywel and the sons of Idwal?.      
952      ?Iago and Idwal the sons of Idwal laid Dyfed waste.?      
954      Rhodri son of Hywel dies.    


   Ingram, James, translator. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. London: Everyman Press, 1912.
The primary text of this translation is from the Harleian manuscript, the earliest copy of the Annales Cambriae which has survived. The text enclosed within the "?" symbols are entries which are not found in the Harleian MS, but which appear in a later version.

   This text is part of the Internet Medieval Source Book. The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts related to medieval and Byzantine history.
Unless otherwise indicated the specific electronic form of the document is copyright. Permission is granted for electronic copying, distribution in print form for educational purposes and personal use. If you do reduplicate the document, indicate the source. No permission is granted for commercial use.

? Paul Halsall, November 1998


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