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This was singular voyage, across much of the Pacific Ocean, in an open boat.

Bligh: The Voyage Home

Vice-Admiral William Bligh, FRS, RN (9 September 1754 ? 7 December 1817) was an officer of the British Royal Navy and colonial administrator. He is best known for the famous mutiny that occurred against his command, aboard HMAV (His Majesty's Armed Vessel) Bounty and the remarkable voyage he made to Timor, on the Bounty's launch, after being set adrift by the mutineers. Many years after the Bounty mutiny, he was appointed Governor of New South Wales, with a brief to clean up the corrupt rum trade of the NSW Corps. He had some success in his task but quickly faced opposition, which culminated in the Rum Rebellion led by Major George Johnston working closely with John Macarthur.

Early life
Bligh was born on September 9, 1754 to Francis and Jane Bligh (n?e Balsam) in Plymouth, although of a Cornish family. He was signed up for the sea at the age of seven in the same city. Whether he went to sea at this tender age is doubtful, as it was common practice to sign on a "young gentleman" simply in order to rack up the required years of service for quick promotion. In 1776, he was selected by Captain James Cook for the position of Sailing Master on the Resolution and accompanied Captain Cook in July 1776 on Cook's third and fatal voyage to the Pacific. He reached England again at the end of 1780 and was able to give further details of Cook's last voyage.

He married Elizabeth Betham, the daughter of a Customs Collector on 4 February 1781 and a few days thereafter he was appointed to serve on HMS Belle Poule as its master. Soon after this in August 1781 he fought in the Battle of Dogger Bank under Admiral Parker. For the next 18 months he was a lieutenant on various ships. He also fought with Lord Howe at Gibraltar in 1782. Between 1783 and 1787 he was a captain in the merchant service. In 1787 he was selected as commander of HMAV Bounty. He would eventually rise to the rank of Vice Admiral in the British Royal Navy.

The voyage of the Bounty

In 1787, Bligh took command of the Bounty. He first sailed to Tahiti to obtain breadfruit trees, then set course for the Caribbean, where breadfruit was wanted for experiments to see if it would be a successful food crop for slaves there. The Bounty never reached the Caribbean, as mutiny broke out onboard, shortly after leaving Tahiti. In later years, Bligh would repeat the same voyage that the Bounty had undertaken and would eventually succeed in delivering the breadfruit to the West Indies.

Since it was rated only as a cutter, the Bounty had no officers other than Bligh himself (who held only a lieutenancy), a very small crew, and no Marines to provide protection from hostile inhabitants during stops or enforce security on board ship. To allow longer uninterrupted sleep, Bligh divided his crew into three watches instead of two, and placed his protege Fletcher Christian ? rated as a Master's Mate ? in charge of one of the watches. The mutiny, which broke out during the return voyage on April 28, 1789, was led by Christian and supported by a quarter of the crew, who had siezed firearms during Christian's night watch and surprised and bound Bligh in his cabin. Despite their being in the majority, none of the loyalists seemed to have put up any significant struggle once they saw Bligh bound, and the ship was taken bloodlessly. The mutineers provided Bligh and the eighteen of his crew who remained loyal with a 23 foot (7 m) launch (so heavily loaded that the sides were only a few inches above the water), with four cutlasses and food and water for a few days to reach the most accessible ports, a sextant and a pocket watch, but no charts or compass. The launch could not hold all the loyal crew members, and four were detained on the Bounty by the mutineers for their useful skills; these were later released at Tahiti.

Tahiti was upwind from Bligh's initial position, and was the obvious destination of the mutineers. Many of the loyalists claimed to have heard the mutineers cry "Huzzah for Otaheite!" as the Bounty pulled away. Timor was the nearest European outpost. Bligh and his crew did make for Tofua first, to obtain supplies. There they were attacked by hostile natives and a crewman was killed. After fleeing Tofua, Bligh didn't dare stop at the next islands (the Fiji islands), as he had no weapons for defense and expected further hostile receptions.

Bligh had a well-deserved confidence in his navigational skills, which he had perfected under the instruction of Captain Cook. His first responsibility was to survive and get word of the mutiny as soon as possible to British vessels that could pursue the mutineers. Thus, he undertook the seemingly-impossible 3618 nautical mile (6701 km) voyage to Timor. In this remarkable act of seamanship, Bligh succeeded in reaching Timor after a 41-day voyage, with the only casualty being the crewman killed on Tofua.

Bligh returned to London arriving in March 1790.

By William Bligh, 1792.
A Ria Press Edition, June 2005.

A voyage to the South Sea, undertaken by command of his majesty, for the purpose of conveying the bread-fruit tree to the West Indies, in his majesty's ship the bounty, commanded by Lieutenant William Bligh.

Including an account of the mutiny on board the said ship, and the subsequent voyage of part of the crew, in the ship's boat, from Tofoa, one of the friendly islands, to Timor, a Dutch settlement in the East Indies.
At the time I published the Narrative of the Mutiny on Board the Bounty it was my intention that the preceding part of the Voyage should be contained in a separate account. This method I have since been induced to alter. The reason of the Narrative appearing first was for the purpose of communicating early information concerning an event which had attracted the public notice: and, being drawn up in a hasty manner, it required many corrections. Some circumstances likewise were omitted; and the notation of time used in the Narrative being according to sea reckoning, in which the days begin and end at noon, must have produced a degree of obscurity and confusion to readers accustomed only to the civil mode. And this would have increased as the remainder of the voyage, on account of the numerous shore occurrences at Otaheite and elsewhere, could not, with clearness and propriety, have been related in any other than the usual manner of reckoning.
Besides remedying these inconveniencies I have thought a fuller account of our passage from Timor to Europe than that contained in the Narrative would not be unacceptable. These reasons, with the manifest convenience of comprising the whole Voyage in one continued narrative, in preference to letting it appear in disjointed accounts will, it is hoped, be allowed a sufficient excuse for having varied from the original intention. Nevertheless for the accommodation of the purchasers of the Narrative already published those who desire it will be supplied with the other parts of the Voyage separate; i.e. the part previous to the mutiny and the additional account after leaving Timor.

Tuesday 28.
Just before sun-rising, while I was yet asleep, Mr. Christian, with the master at arms, gunner's mate, and Thomas Burkitt, seaman, came into my cabin, and seizing me tied my hands with a cord behind my back, threatening me with instant death if I spoke or made the least noise: I however called as loud as I could in hopes of assistance; but they had already secured the officers who were not of their party by placing sentinels at their doors. There were three men at my cabin door besides the four within; Christian had only a cutlass in his hand, the others had muskets and bayonets. I was hauled out of bed and forced on deck in my shirt, suffering great pain from the tightness which with they had tied my hands. I demanded the reason of such violence but received no other answer than abuse for not holding my tongue. The master, the gunner, the surgeon, Mr. Elphinstone, master's mate, and Nelson, were kept confined below; and the fore hatchway was guarded by sentinels. The boatswain and carpenter, and also the clerk, Mr. Samuel, were allowed to come upon deck, where they saw me standing abaft the mizenmast with my hands tied behind my back under a guard with Christian at their head. The boatswain was ordered to hoist the launch out with a threat if he did not do it instantly TO TAKE CARE OF HIMSELF.
When the boat was out Mr. Hayward and Mr. Hallet, two of the midshipmen, and Mr. Samuel, were ordered into it. I demanded what their intention was in giving this order and endeavoured to persuade the people near me not to persist in such acts of violence; but it was to no effect: "Hold your tongue, Sir, or you are dead this instant," was constantly repeated to me.
The master by this time had sent to request that he might come on deck, which was permitted but he was soon ordered back again to his cabin.
I continued my endeavours to turn the tide of affairs, when Christian changed the cutlass which he had in his hand for a bayonet that was brought to him and, holding me with a strong grip by the cord that tied my hands, he with many oaths threatened to kill me immediately if I would not be quiet: the villains round me had their pieces cocked and bayonets fixed. Particular people were called on to go into the boat and were hurried over the side; whence I concluded that with these people I was to be set adrift: I therefore made another effort to bring about a change but with no other effect than to be threatened with having my brains blown out.
The boatswain and seamen who were to go in the boat were allowed to collect twine, canvas, lines, sails, cordage, an eight and twenty-gallon cask of water, and Mr. Samuel got 150 pounds of bread, with a small quantity of rum and wine, also a quadrant and compass; but he was forbidden on pain of death to touch either map, ephemeris, book of astronomical observations, sextant, timekeeper, or any of my surveys or drawings.
The mutineers having forced those of the seamen whom they meant to get rid of into the boat, Christian directed a dram to be served to each of his own crew. I then unhappily saw that nothing could be done to effect the recovery of the ship: there was no one to assist me, and every endeavour on my part was answered with threats of death.
The officers were next called upon deck and forced over the side into the boat, while I was kept apart from everyone, abaft the mizenmast; Christian, armed with a buoyant, holding me by the bandage that secured my hands. The guard round me had their pieces cocked, but on my daring the ungrateful wretches to fire they uncocked them.
Isaac Martin, one of the guard over me, I saw had an inclination to assist me, and as he fed me with shaddock (my lips being quite parched) we explained our wishes to each other by our looks; but this being observed Martin was removed from me. He then attempted to leave the ship, for which purpose he got into the boat; but with many threats they obliged him to return.
The armourer, Joseph Coleman, and two of the carpenters, McIntosh and Norman, were also kept contrary to their inclination; and they begged of me, after I was astern in the boat, to remember that they declared they had no hand in the transaction. Michael Byrne, I am told, likewise wanted to leave the ship.
It is of no moment for me to recount my endeavours to bring back the offenders to a sense of their duty: all I could do was by speaking to them in general; but it was to no purpose, for I was kept securely bound and no one except the guard suffered to come near me.
To Mr. Samuel I am indebted for securing my journals and commission with some material ship papers. Without these I had nothing to certify what I had done, and my honour and character might have been suspected without my possessing a proper document to have defended them. All this he did with great resolution, though guarded and strictly watched. He attempted to save the timekeeper, and a box with my surveys, drawings, and remarks for fifteen years past, which were numerous, when he was hurried away, with "Damn your eyes you are well off to get what you have."
It appeared to me that Christian was some time in doubt whether he should keep the carpenter or his mates; at length he determined on the latter and the carpenter was ordered into the boat. He was permitted but not without some opposition to take his tool chest.
Much altercation took place among the mutinous crew during the whole business: some swore "I'll be damned if he does not find his way home, if he gets anything with him," (meaning me) and, when the carpenter's chest was carrying away, "Damn my eyes he will have a vessel built in a month." While others laughed at the helpless situation of the boat, being very deep and so little room for those who were in her. As for Christian he seemed as if meditating destruction on himself and everyone else.
I asked for arms but they laughed at me, and said I was well acquainted with the people among whom I was going, and therefore did not want them; four cutlasses however were thrown into the boat after we were veered astern.
The officers and men being in the boat they only waited for me, of which the master at arms informed Christian, who then said: "Come, captain Bligh, your officers and men are now in the boat and you must go with them; if you attempt to make the least resistance you will instantly be put to death" and, without further ceremony, with a tribe of armed ruffians about me, I was forced over the side where they untied my hands. Being in the boat we were veered astern by a rope. A few pieces of pork were thrown to us, and some clothes, also the cutlasses I have already mentioned; and it was then that the armourer and carpenters called out to me to remember that they had no hand in the transaction. After having undergone a great deal of ridicule and been kept some time to make sport for these unfeeling wretches we were at length cast adrift in the open ocean.
I had with me in the boat the following persons:
John Fryer: Master. Thomas Ledward: Acting Surgeon. David Nelson: Botanist. William Peckover: Gunner. William Cole: Boatswain. William Purcell: Carpenter. William Elphinston: Master's Mate. Thomas Hayward, John Hallet: Midshipman. John Norton, Peter Linkletter: Quarter Masters. Lawrence Lebogue: Sailmaker. John Smith, Thomas Hall: Cooks. George Simpson: Quarter Master's Mate. Robert Tinkler: A boy. Robert Lamb: Butcher. Mr. Samuel: Clerk.
There remained on board the Bounty:
Fletcher Christian: Master's Mate. Peter Haywood, Edward Young, George Stewart: Midshipmen. Charles Churchill: Master at Arms. John Mills: Gunner's Mate. James Morrison: Boatswain's Mate. Thomas Burkitt, Matthew Quintal, John Sumner, John Millward, William McKoy, Henry Hillbrant, Michael Byrne, William Musprat, Alexander Smith, John Williams, Thomas Ellison, Isaac Martin, Richard Skinner, Matthew Thompson: Able Seamen. William Brown: Gardener. Joseph Coleman: Armourer. Charles Norman: Carpenter's Mate. Thomas McIntosh: Carpenter's Crew.
In all 25 hands, and the most able men of the ship's company.
Having little or no wind we rowed pretty fast towards Tofoa, which bore north-east about 10 leagues from us. While the ship was in sight she steered to the west-north-west, but I considered this only as a feint; for when we were sent away "Huzza for Otaheite" was frequently heard among the mutineers.
Christian the chief of the mutineers is of a respectable family in the north of England. This was the third voyage he had made with me and, as I found it necessary to keep my ship's company at three watches, I had given him an order to take charge of the third, his abilities being thoroughly equal to the task; and by this means the master and gunner were not at watch and watch.
Haywood is also of a respectable family in the north of England and a young man of abilities as well as Christian. These two had been objects of my particular regard and attention, and I had taken great pains to instruct them, having entertained hopes that as professional men they would have become a credit to their country.
Young was well recommended and had the look of an able stout seaman: he however fell short of what his appearance promised.
Stewart was a young man of creditable parents in the Orkneys, at which place on the return of the Resolution from the South Seas in 1780 we received so many civilities that on that account only I should gladly have taken him with me but, independent of this recommendation, he was a seaman and had always borne a good character.
Notwithstanding the roughness with which I was treated the remembrance of past kindnesses produced some signs of remorse in Christian. When they were forcing me out of the ship I asked him if this treatment was a proper return for the many instances he had received of my friendship? he appeared disturbed at my question and answered with much emotion: "That, captain Bligh, that is the thing; I am in hell, I am in hell."
As soon as I had time to reflect I felt an inward satisfaction which prevented any depression of my spirits: conscious of my integrity and anxious solicitude for the good of the service in which I had been engaged I found my mind wonderfully supported, and I began to conceive hopes, notwithstanding so heavy a calamity, that I should one day be able to account to my King and country for the misfortune. A few hours before my situation had been peculiarly flattering. I had a ship in the most perfect order and well stored with every necessary both for service and health: by early attention to those particulars I had as much as lay in my power, provided against any accident, in case I could not get through Endeavour Straits, as well as against what might befall me in them; add to this the plants had been successfully preserved in the most flourishing state: so that upon the whole the voyage was two-thirds completed, and the remaining part to all appearance in a very promising way; every person on board being in perfect health, to establish which was ever amongst the principal objects of my attention.
It will very naturally be asked what could be the reason for such a revolt? in answer to which I can only conjecture that the mutineers had flattered themselves with the hopes of a more happy life among the Otaheiteans than they could possibly enjoy in England; and this, joined to some female connections, most probably occasioned the whole transaction.
The women at Otaheite are handsome, mild and cheerful in their manners and conversation, possessed of great sensibility, and have sufficient delicacy to make them admired and beloved. The chiefs were so much attached to our people that they rather encouraged their stay among them than otherwise, and even made them promises of large possessions. Under these and many other attendant circumstances equally desirable it is now perhaps not so much to be wondered at, though scarcely possible to have been foreseen, that a set of sailors, most of them void of connections, should be led away; especially when, in addition to such powerful inducements, they imagined it in their power to fix themselves in the midst of plenty on one of the finest islands in the world, where they need not labour, and where the allurements of dissipation are beyond anything that can be conceived. The utmost however that any commander could have supposed to have happened is that some of the people would have been tempted to desert. But, if it should be asserted that a commander is to guard against an act of mutiny and piracy in his own ship more than by the common rules of service, it is as much as to say that he must sleep locked up and when awake be girded with pistols.
Desertions have happened more or less from most of the ships that have been at the Society Islands; but it has always been in the commanders power to make the chiefs return their people: the knowledge therefore that it was unsafe to desert perhaps first led mine to consider with what ease so small a ship might be surprised, and that so favourable an opportunity would never offer to them again.
The secrecy of this mutiny is beyond all conception. Thirteen of the party who were with me had always lived forward among the seamen; yet neither they nor the messmates of Christian, Stewart, Haywood, and Young, had ever observed any circumstance that made them in the least suspect what was going on. To such a close-planned act of villainy, my mind being entirely free from any suspicion, it is not wonderful that I fell a sacrifice. Perhaps if there had been marines on board a sentinel at my cabin-door might have prevented it; for I slept with the door always open that the officer of the watch might have access to me on all occasions, the possibility of such a conspiracy being ever the farthest from my thoughts. Had their mutiny been occasioned by any grievances, either real or imaginary, I must have discovered symptoms of their discontent, which would have put me on my guard: but the case was far otherwise. Christian in particular I was on the most friendly terms with: that very day he was engaged to have dined with me, and the preceding night he excused himself from supping with me on pretence of being unwell; for which I felt concerned, having no suspicions of his integrity and honour.

Proceed in the Launch to the Island Tofoa. Difficulty in obtaining Supplies there. Treacherous Attack of the Natives. Escape to Sea and bear away for New Holland.

1789. April.
My first determination was to seek a supply of breadfruit and water at Tofoa, and afterwards to sail for Tongataboo, and there risk a solicitation to Poulaho the king to equip our boat and grant us a supply of water and provisions, so as to enable us to reach the East Indies.
The quantity of provisions I found in the boat was 150 pounds of bread, 16 pieces of pork, each piece weighing 2 pounds, 6 quarts of rum, 6 bottles of wine, with 28 gallons of water, and four empty barrecoes.
Fortunately it was calm all the afternoon till about four o'clock, when we were so far to windward that, with a moderate easterly breeze which sprung up, we were able to sail. It was nevertheless dark when we got to Tofoa where I expected to land, but the shore proved to be so steep and rocky that we were obliged to give up all thoughts of it and keep the boat under the lee of the island with two oars, for there was no anchorage. Having fixed on this mode of proceeding for the night I served to every person half a pint of grog, and each took to his rest as well as our unhappy situation would allow.

Wednesday 29.
In the morning at dawn of day we rowed along shore in search of a landing-place, and about ten o'clock we discovered a cove with a stony beach at the north-west part of the island, where I dropped the grapnel within 20 yards of the rocks. A great surf ran on the shore but, as I was unwilling to diminish our stock of provisions, I landed Mr. Samuel and some others, who climbed the cliffs and got into the country to search for supplies. The rest of us remained at the cove, not discovering any other way into the country than that by which Mr. Samuel had proceeded. It was great consolation to me to find that the spirits of my people did not sink, notwithstanding our miserable and almost hopeless situation. Towards noon Mr. Samuel returned with a few quarts of water which he had found in holes; but he had met with no spring or any prospect of a sufficient supply in that particular, and had seen only the signs of inhabitants. As it was uncertain what might be our future necessities I only issued a morsel of bread and a glass of wine to each person for dinner.
I observed the latitude of this cove to be 19 degrees 41 minutes south. This is the north-west part of Tofoa, the north-westernmost of the Friendly Islands.
The weather was fair but the wind blew so strong from the east-south-east that we could not venture to sea. Our detention made it absolutely necessary to endeavour to obtain something towards our support; for I determined if possible to keep our first stock entire. We therefore weighed and rowed along shore to see if anything could be got; and at last discovered some coconut trees; but they were on the top of high precipices and the surf made it dangerous landing: both one and the other we however got the better of. Some of the people with much difficulty climbed the cliffs and got about 20 coconuts, and others flung them to ropes, by which we hauled them through the surf into the boat. This was all that could be done here and, as I found no place so safe as the one we had left to spend the night at, I returned to the cove and, having served a coconut to each person, we went to rest again in the boat.

Thursday 30.
At daylight we attempted to put to sea; but the wind and weather proved so bad that I was glad to return to our former station where, after issuing a morsel of bread and a spoonful of rum to each person, we landed, and I went off with Mr. Nelson, Mr. Samuel, and some others, into the country, having hauled ourselves up the precipice by long vines which were fixed there by the natives for that purpose, this being the only way into the country.
We found a few deserted huts and a small plantain walk but little taken care of, from which we could only collect three small bunches of plantains. After passing this place we came to a deep gully that led towards a mountain near a volcano and, as I conceived that in the rainy season very great torrents of water must pass through it, we hoped to find sufficient for our use remaining in some holes of the rocks; but after all our search the whole that we collected was only nine gallons. We advanced within two miles of the foot of the highest mountain in the island, on which is the volcano that is almost constantly burning. The country near it is covered with lava and has a most dreary appearance. As we had not been fortunate in our discoveries, and saw nothing to alleviate our distresses except the plantains and water above-mentioned, we returned to the boat exceedingly fatigued and faint. When I came to the precipice whence we were to descend into the cove I was seized with such a dizziness in my head that I thought it scarce possible to effect it: however by the assistance of Nelson and others they at last got me down, in a weak condition. Every person being returned by noon I gave about an ounce of pork and two plantains to each, with half a glass of wine. I again observed the latitude of this place 19 degrees 41 minutes south. The people who remained by the boat I had directed to look for fish or what they could pick up about the rocks; but nothing eatable could be found: so that upon the whole we considered ourselves on as miserable a spot of land as could well be imagined.
I could not say positively from the former knowledge I had of this island whether it was inhabited or not; but I knew it was considered inferior to the other islands, and I was not certain but that the Indians only resorted to it at particular times. I was very anxious to ascertain this point for, in case there had been only a few people here, and those could have furnished us with but very moderate supplies, the remaining in this spot to have made preparations for our voyage would have been preferable to the risk of going amongst multitudes, where perhaps we might lose everything. A party therefore sufficiently strong I determined should go another route as soon as the sun became lower, and they cheerfully undertook it.
About two o'clock in the afternoon the party set out but, after suffering much fatigue, they returned in the evening without any kind of success.
At the head of the cove about 150 yards from the waterside there was a cave; the distance across the stony beach was about 100 yards, and from the country into the cove there was no other way than that which I have already described. The situation secured us from the danger of being surprised, and I determined to remain on shore for the night with a part of my people that the others might have more room to rest in the boat with the master, whom I directed to lie at a grapnel and be watchful in case we should be attacked. I ordered one plantain for each person to be boiled and, having supped on this scanty allowance with a quarter of a pint of grog, and fixed the watches for the night, those whose turn it was laid down to sleep in the cave, before which we kept up a good fire yet notwithstanding we were much troubled with flies and mosquitoes.

May. Friday 1.
At dawn of day the party set out again in a different route to see what they could find, in the course of which they suffered greatly for want of water: they however met with two men, a woman, and a child: the men came with them to the cove and brought two coconut shells of water. I endeavoured to make friends of these people and sent them away for breadfruit, plantains, and water. Soon after other natives came to us; and by noon there were thirty about us, from whom we obtained a small supply; but I could only afford one ounce of pork and a quarter of a breadfruit to each man for dinner, with half a pint of water, for I was fixed in my resolution not to use any of the bread or water in the boat.
No particular chief was yet among the natives: they were notwithstanding tractable, and behaved honestly, exchanging the provisions they brought for a few buttons and beads. The party who had been out informed me of their having seen several neat plantations, so that it remained no longer a doubt of there being settled inhabitants on the island, for which reason I determined to get what I could, and to sail the first moment that the wind and weather would allow us to put to sea.
I was much puzzled in what manner to account to the natives for the loss of my ship: I knew they had too much sense to be amused with a story that the ship was to join me, when she was not in sight from the hills. I was at first doubtful whether I should tell the real fact or say that the ship had overset and sunk, and that we only were saved: the latter appeared to be the most proper and advantageous for us, and I accordingly instructed my people, that we might all agree in one story. As I expected enquiries were made about the ship, and they seemed readily satisfied with our account; but there did not appear the least symptom of joy or sorrow in their faces, although I fancied I discovered some marks of surprise. Some of the natives were coming and going the whole afternoon, and we got enough of breadfruit, plantains, and coconuts for another day; but of water they only brought us about five pints. A canoe also came in with four men and brought a few coconuts and breadfruit which I bought as I had done the rest. Nails were much enquired after, but I would not suffer any to be shown as they were wanted for the use of the boat.
Towards evening I had the satisfaction to find our stock of provisions somewhat increased, but the natives did not appear to have much to spare. What they brought was in such small quantities that I had no reason to hope we should be able to procure from them sufficient to stock us for our voyage. At sunset all the natives left us in quiet possession of the cove. I thought this a good sign, and made no doubt that they would come again the next day with a better supply of food and water, with which I hoped to sail without farther delay: for if in attempting to get to Tongataboo we should be driven to leeward of the islands there would be a larger quantity of provisions to support us against such a misfortune.
At night I served a quarter of a breadfruit and a coconut to each person for supper and, a good fire being made, all but the watch went to sleep.

Saturday 2.
At daybreak the next morning I was pleased to find everyone's spirits a little revived, and that they no longer regarded me with those anxious looks which had constantly been directed towards me since we lost sight of the ship: every countenance appeared to have a degree of cheerfulness, and they all seemed determined to do their best.
As there was no certainty of our being supplied with water by the natives I sent a party among the gullies in the mountains with empty shells to see what could be found. In their absence the natives came about us as I expected, and in greater numbers; two canoes also came in from round the north side of the island. In one of them was an elderly chief called Maccaackavow. Soon after some of our foraging party returned, and with them came a good-looking chief called Egijeefow, or perhaps more properly Eefow, Egij or Eghee, signifying a chief. To each of these men I made a present of an old shirt and a knife, and I soon found they either had seen me or had heard of my being at Annamooka. They knew I had been with captain Cook, who they inquired after, and also captain Clerk. They were very inquisitive to know in what manner I had lost my ship. During this conversation a young man named Nageete appeared, whom I remembered to have seen at Annamooka: he expressed much pleasure at our meeting. I enquired after Poulaho and Feenow, who they said were at Tongataboo; and Eefow agreed to accompany me thither if I would wait till the weather moderated. The readiness and affability of this man gave me much satisfaction.
This however was but of short duration for the natives began to increase in number and I observed some symptoms of a design against us. Soon after they attempted to haul the boat on shore, on which I brandished my cutlass in a threatening manner and spoke to Eefow to desire them to desist, which they did and everything became quiet again. My people who had been in the mountains now returned with about three gallons of water. I kept buying up the little breadfruit that was brought to us, and likewise some spears to arm my men with, having only four cutlasses, two of which were in the boat. As we had no means of improving our situation I told our people I would wait till sunset, by which time perhaps something might happen in our favour: for if we attempted to go at present we must fight our way through, which we could do more advantageously at night; and that in the meantime we would endeavour to get off to the boat what we had bought. The beach was lined with the natives and we heard nothing but the knocking of stones together, which they had in each hand. I knew very well this was the sign of an attack. At noon I served a coconut and a breadfruit to each person for dinner, and gave some to the chiefs, with whom I continued to appear intimate and friendly. They frequently importuned me to sit down but I as constantly refused: for it occurred both to Nelson and myself that the intended to seize hold of me if I gave them such an opportunity. Keeping therefore constantly on our guard we were suffered to eat our uncomfortable meal in some quietness.
After dinner we began by little and little to get our things into the boat, which was a troublesome business on account of the surf. I carefully watched the motions of the natives, who continued to increase in number, and found that, instead of their intention being to leave us, fires were made, and places fixed on for their stay during the night. Consultations were also held among them and everything assured me we should be attacked. I sent orders to the master that when he saw us coming down he should keep the boat close to the shore that we might the more readily embark.
I had my journal on shore with me, writing the occurrences in the cave and in sending it down to the boat, it was nearly snatched away but for the timely assistance of the gunner.
The sun was near setting when I gave the word, on which every person who was on shore with me boldly took up his proportion of things and carried them to the boat. The chiefs asked me if I would not stay with them all night. I said: "No, I never sleep out of my boat; but in the morning we will again trade with you, and I shall remain till the weather is moderate that we may go, as we have agreed, to see Poulaho at Tongataboo." Maccaackavow then got up and said: "You will not sleep on shore? then Mattie" (which directly signifies we will kill you) and he left me. The onset was now preparing; everyone as I have described before kept knocking stones together, and Eefow quitted me. All but two or three things were in the boat, when I took Nageete by the hand, and we walked down the beach, everyone in a silent kind of horror.
While I was seeing the people embark Nageete wanted me to stay to speak to Eefow, but I found he was encouraging them to the attack, and it was my determination if they had then begun to have killed him for his treacherous behaviour. I ordered the carpenter not to quit me till the other people were in the boat. Nageete, finding I would not stay, loosed himself from my hold and went off, and we all got into the boat except one man who, while I was getting on board, quitted it and ran up the beach to cast the stern fast off, notwithstanding the master and others called to him to return while they were hauling me out of the water.
I was no sooner in the boat than the attack began by about 200 men; the unfortunate poor man who had run up the beach was knocked down, and the stones flew like a shower of shot. Many Indians got hold of the stern rope and were near hauling the boat on shore, which they would certainly have effected if I had not had a knife in my pocket with which I cut the rope. We then hauled off to the grapnel, everyone being more or less hurt. At this time I saw five of the natives about the poor man they had killed, and two of them were beating him about the head with stones in their hands.
We had no time to reflect for to my surprise they filled their canoes with stones, and twelve men came off after us to renew the attack, which they did so effectually as nearly to disable us all. Our grapnel was foul but Providence here assisted us; the fluke broke and we got to our oars and pulled to sea. They however could paddle round us, so that we were obliged to sustain the attack without being able to return it, except with such stones as lodged in the boat, and in this I found we were very inferior to them. We could not close because our boat was lumbered and heavy, of which they knew how to take advantage: I therefore adopted the expedient of throwing overboard some clothes which, as I expected, they stopped to pick up and, as it was by this time almost dark, they gave over the attack and returned towards the shore leaving us to reflect on our unhappy situation.
The poor man killed by the natives was John Norton: this was his second voyage with me as a quartermaster, and his worthy character made me lament his loss very much. He has left an aged parent I am told, whom he supported.
I once before sustained an attack of a similar nature with a smaller number of Europeans against a multitude of Indians: it was after the death of Captain Cook on the Morai at Owhyhee, where I was left by Lieutenant King. Yet notwithstanding this experience I had not an idea that the power of a man's arm could throw stones from two to eight pounds weight with such force and exactness as these people did. Here unhappily we were without firearms, which the Indians knew; and it was a fortunate circumstance that they did not begin to attack us in the cave; for in that case our destruction must have been inevitable, and we should have had nothing left for it but to sell our lives as dearly as we could, in which I found everyone cheerfully disposed to concur. This appearance of resolution deterred them, supposing that they could effect their purpose without risk after we were in the boat.
Taking this as a sample of the disposition of the natives there was but little reason to expect much benefit by persevering in the intention of visiting Poulaho; for I considered their good behaviour formerly to have proceeded from a dread of our firearms, and which therefore was likely to cease, as they knew we were now destitute of them: and even supposing our lives not in danger the boat and everything we had would most probably be taken from us, and thereby all hopes precluded of ever being able to return to our native country.
We set our sails and steered along shore by the west side of the island Tofoa, the wind blowing fresh from the eastward. My mind was employed in considering what was best to be done when I was solicited by all hands to take them towards home: and when I told them that no hopes of relief for us remained (except what might be found at New Holland) till I came to Timor, a distance of full 1200 leagues, where there was a Dutch settlement, but in what part of the island I knew not, they all agreed to live on one ounce of bread and a quarter of a pint of water per day. Therefore after examining our stock of provisions and recommending to them in the most solemn manner not to depart from their promise, we bore away across a sea where the navigation is but little known, in a small boat twenty-three feet long from stem to stern, deep laden with eighteen men. I was happy however to see that everyone seemed better satisfied with our situation than myself.
Our stock of provisions consisted of about one hundred and fifty pounds of bread, twenty-eight gallons of water, twenty pounds of pork, three bottles of wine, and five quarts of rum. The difference between this and the quantity we had on leaving the ship was principally owing to our loss in the bustle and confusion of the attack. A few coconuts were in the boat and some breadfruit, but the latter was trampled to pieces.

Passage towards New Holland. Islands discovered in our Route. Our great Distresses. See the Reefs of New Holland and find a Passage through them.

1789. May.
It was about eight o'clock at night when we bore away under a reefed lug fore-sail and, having divided the people into watches and got the boat in a little order, we returned God thanks for our miraculous preservation and, fully confident of his gracious support, I found my mind more at ease than it had been for some time past.

Sunday 3.
At daybreak the gale increased; the sun rose very fiery and red, a sure indication of a severe gale of wind. At eight it blew a violent storm and the sea ran very high, so that between the seas the sail was becalmed, and when on the top of the sea it was too much to have set: but we could not venture to take in the sail for we were in very imminent danger and distress, the sea curling over the stern of the boat, which obliged us to bale with all our might. A situation more distressing has perhaps seldom been experienced.
Our bread was in bags and in danger of being spoiled by the wet: to be starved to death was inevitable if this could not be prevented: I therefore began to examine what clothes there were in the boat and what other things could be spared and, having determined that only two suits should be kept for each person, the rest was thrown overboard with some rope and spare sails, which lightened the boat considerably, and we had more room to bale the water out. Fortunately the carpenter had a good chest in the boat, in which we secured the bread the first favourable moment. His tool chest also was cleared and the tools stowed in the bottom of the boat so that this became a second convenience.
I served a teaspoonful of rum to each person (for we were very wet and cold) with a quarter of a breadfruit, which was scarce eatable, for dinner: our engagement was now strictly to be carried into execution, and I was fully determined to make our provisions last eight weeks, let the daily proportion be ever so small.
At noon I considered our course and distance from Tofoa to be west-north-west three-quarters west 86 miles, latitude 19 degrees 27 minutes south. I directed the course to the west-north-west that we might get a sight of the islands called Feejee if they laid in the direction the natives had pointed out to me.
The weather continued very severe, the wind veering from north-east to east-south-east. The sea ran higher than in the forenoon, and the fatigue of baling to keep the boat from filling was exceedingly great. We could do nothing more than keep before the sea, in the course of which the boat performed so well that I no longer dreaded any danger in that respect. But, among the hardships we were to undergo, that of being constantly wet was not the least.

Monday 4.
The night was very cold and at daylight our limbs were so benumbed that we could scarce find the use of them. At this time I served a teaspoonful of rum to each person, from which we all found great benefit.
As I have mentioned before I determined to keep to the west-north-west till I got more to the northward, for I not only expected to have better weather but to see the Feejee Islands, as I have often understood from the natives of Annamooka that they lie in that direction. Captain Cook likewise considered them to be north-west by west from Tongataboo. Just before noon we discovered a small flat island of a moderate height bearing west-south-west 4 or 5 leagues. I observed our latitude to be 18 degrees 58 minutes south; our longitude was by account 3 degrees 4 minutes west from the island of Tofoa, having made a north 72 degrees west course, distance 95 miles, since yesterday noon. I divided five small coconuts for our dinner and everyone was satisfied.
A little after noon other islands appeared, and at a quarter past three o'clock we could count eight, bearing from south round by the west to north-west by north, those to the south which were the nearest being four leagues distant from us.
I kept my course to the north-west by west between the islands, the gale having considerably abated. At six o'clock we discovered three other small islands to the north-west, the westernmost of them bore north-west half west 7 leagues. I steered to the southward of these islands a west-north-west course for the night under a reefed sail.
Served a few broken pieces of breadfruit for supper and performed prayers.
The night turned out fair and, having had tolerable rest, everyone seemed considerably better in the morning, and contentedly breakfasted on a few pieces of yams that were found in the boat. After breakfast we examined our bread, a great deal of which was damaged and rotten; this nevertheless we were glad to keep for use.
I had hitherto been scarcely able to keep any account of our run, but we now equipped ourselves a little better by getting a log-line marked and, having practised at counting seconds, several could do it with some degree of exactness.
The islands we had passed lie between the latitude of 19 degrees 5 minutes south and 18 degrees 19 minutes south, and according to my reckoning from 3 degrees 17 minutes to 3 degrees 46 minutes west longitude from the island Tofoa: the largest may be about six leagues in circuit; but it is impossible for me to be very correct. To show where they are to be found again is the most my situation enabled me to do. The sketch I have made will give a comparative view of their extent. I believe all the larger islands are inhabited as they appeared very fertile.
At noon I observed in latitude 18 degrees 10 seconds south and considered my course and distance from yesterday noon north-west by west half west 94 miles; longitude by account from Tofoa 4 degrees 29 minutes west.
For dinner I served some of the damaged bread and a quarter of a pint of water.
About six o'clock in the afternoon we discovered two islands, one bearing west by south 6 leagues and the other north-west by north 8 leagues; I kept to windward of the northernmost and, passing it by 10 o'clock, I resumed our course to the north-west and west-north-west for the night.

Wednesday 6.
The weather was fair and the wind moderate all day from the east-north-east. At daylight a number of other islands were in sight from south-south-east to the west and round to north-east by east; between those in the north-west I determined to pass. At noon a small sandy island or key two miles distant from me bore from east to south three-quarters west. I had passed ten islands, the largest of which I judged to be 6 or 8 leagues in circuit. Much larger lands appeared in the south-west and north-north-west, between which I directed my course. Latitude observed 17 degrees 17 minutes south; course since yesterday noon north 50 degrees west; distance 84 miles; longitude made by account 5 degrees 37 minutes west.
Our allowance for the day was a quarter of a pint of coconut milk and the meat, which did not exceed two ounces to each person: it was received very contentedly but we suffered great drought. I durst not venture to land as we had no arms and were less capable of defending ourselves than we were at Tofoa.
To keep an account of the boat's run was rendered difficult from being constantly wet with the sea breaking over us but, as we advanced towards the land, the sea became smoother and I was enabled to form a sketch of the islands which will serve to give a general knowledge of their extent and position. Those we were near appeared fruitful and hilly, some very mountainous and all of a good height.
To our great joy we hooked a fish, but we were miserably disappointed by its being lost in trying to get it into the boat.
We continued steering to the north-west between the islands which by the evening appeared of considerable extent, woody and mountainous. At sunset the southernmost bore from south to south-west by west and the northernmost from north by west half west to north-east half east. At six o'clock we were nearly midway between them and about 6 leagues distant from each shore when we fell in with a coral bank, on which we had only four feet water, without the least break on it or ruffle of the sea to give us warning. I could see that it extended about a mile on each side of us, but as it is probable that it may extend much further I have laid it down so in my sketch.
I directed the course west by north for the night, and served to each person an ounce of the damaged bread and a quarter of a pint of water for supper.
As our lodgings were very miserable and confined for want of room I endeavoured to remedy the latter defect by putting ourselves at watch and watch; so that one half always sat up while the other lay down on the boat's bottom or upon a chest, with nothing to cover us but the heavens. Our limbs were dreadfully cramped for we could not stretch them out, and the nights were so cold, and we so constantly wet, that after a few hours sleep we could scarce move.

Thursday 7.
At dawn of day we again discovered land from west-south-west to west-north-west, and another island north-north-west, the latter a high round lump of but little extent: the southern land that we had passed in the night was still in sight. Being very wet and cold I served a spoonful of rum and a morsel of bread for breakfast.
The land in the west was distinguished by some extraordinary high rocks which, as we approached them, assumed a variety of forms. The country appeared to be agreeably interspersed with high and low land, and in some places covered with wood. Off the north-east part lay some small rocky islands, between which and an island 4 leagues to the north-east I directed my course; but a lee current very unexpectedly set us very near to the rocky isles, and we could only get clear of it by rowing, passing close to the reef that surrounded them. At this time we observed two large sailing canoes coming swiftly after us along shore and, being apprehensive of their intentions, we rowed with some anxiety, fully sensible of our weak and defenceless state. At noon it was calm and the weather cloudy; my latitude is therefore doubtful to 3 or 4 miles. Our course since yesterday noon north-west by west, distance 79 miles; latitude by account 16 degrees 29 minutes south, and longitude by account from Tofoa 6 degrees 46 minutes west. Being constantly wet it was with the utmost difficulty I could open a book to write, and I am sensible that what I have done can only serve to point out where these lands are to be found again, and give an idea of their extent.
All the afternoon we had light winds at north-north-east: the weather was very rainy, attended with thunder and lightning. Only one of the canoes gained upon us, which by three o'clock in the afternoon was not more than two miles off, when she gave over chase.
If I may judge from the sail of these vessels they are of a similar construction with those at the Friendly Islands which, with the nearness of their situation, gives reason to believe that they are the same kind of people. Whether these canoes had any hostile intention against us must remain a doubt: perhaps we might have benefited by an intercourse with them, but in our defenceless situation to have made the experiment would have been risking too much.
I imagine these to be the islands called Feejee as their extent, direction, and distance from the Friendly Islands answers to the description given of them by those Islanders. Heavy rain came on at four o'clock, when every person did their utmost to catch some water, and we increased our stock to 34 gallons, besides quenching our thirst for the first time since we had been at sea; but an attendant consequence made us pass the night very miserably for, being extremely wet and having no dry things to shift or cover us, we experienced cold and shiverings scarce to be conceived. Most fortunately for us the forenoon turned out fair and we stripped and dried our clothes. The allowance I issued today was an ounce and a half of pork, a teaspoonful of rum, half a pint of coconut milk, and an ounce of bread. The rum though so small in quantity was of the greatest service. A fishing-line was generally towing from the stern of the boat but though we saw great numbers of fish we could never catch one.
At noon I observed in latitude 16 degrees 4 minutes south and found we had made a course from yesterday noon north 62 degrees west distance 62 miles; longitude by account from Tofoa 7 degrees 42 minutes west.
The land passed yesterday and the day before is a group of islands, 14 or 16 in number, lying between the latitude of 16 degrees 26 minutes south and 17 degrees 57 minutes south, and in longitude by my account 4 degrees 47 minutes to 7 degrees 17 minutes west from Tofoa. Three of these islands are very large, having from 30 to 40 leagues of sea-coast.
In the afternoon we cleaned out the boat and it employed us till sunset to get everything dry and in order. Hitherto I had issued the allowance by guess, but I now made a pair of scales with two coconut shells and, having accidentally some pistol-balls in the boat, 25 of which weighed one pound or 16 ounces, I adopted one,* as the proportion of weight that each person should receive of bread at the times I served it. I also amused all hands with describing the situation of New Guinea and New Holland, and gave them every information in my power that in case any accident happened to me those who survived might have some idea of what they were about, and be able to find their way to Timor, which at present they knew nothing of more than the name and some not even that. At night I served a quarter of a pint of water and half an ounce of bread for supper.
(*Footnote. It weighed 272 grains.)

Saturday 9.
In the morning a quarter of a pint of coconut milk and some of the decayed bread was served for breakfast, and for dinner I divided the meat of four coconuts with the remainder of the rotten bread, which was only eatable by such distressed people.
At noon I observed the latitude to be 15 degrees 47 minutes south; course since yesterday north 75 degrees west distance 64 miles; longitude made by account 8 degrees 45 minutes west.
In the afternoon I fitted a pair of shrouds for each mast, and contrived a canvas weather cloth round the boat, and raised the quarters about nine inches by nailing on the seats of the stern sheets, which proved of great benefit to us.
The wind had been moderate all day in the south-east quarter with fine weather; but about nine o'clock in the evening the clouds began to gather, and we had a prodigious fall of rain with severe thunder and lightning. By midnight we caught about twenty gallons of water. Being miserably wet and cold I served to the people a teaspoonful of rum each to enable them to bear with their distressed situation. The weather continued extremely bad and the wind increased; we spent a very miserable night without sleep except such as could be got in the midst of rain. The day brought no relief but its light. The sea broke over us so much that two men were constantly baling; and we had no choice how to steer, being obliged to keep before the waves for fear of the boat filling.
The allowance now regularly served to each person was one 25th of a pound of bread and a quarter of a pint of water, at eight in the morning, at noon, and at sunset. Today I gave about half an ounce of pork for dinner which, though any moderate person would have considered only as a mouthful, was divided into three or four.
The rain abated towards noon and I observed the latitude to be 15 degrees 17 minutes south; course north 67 degrees west distance 78 miles; longitude made 10 degrees west.
The wind continued strong from south-south-east to south-east with very squally weather and a high breaking sea, so that we were miserably wet and suffered great cold in the night.

Monday 11.
In the morning at daybreak I served to every person a teaspoonful of rum, our limbs being so cramped that we could scarce move them. Our situation was now extremely dangerous, the sea frequently running over our stern, which kept us baling with all our strength.
At noon the sun appeared, which gave us as much pleasure as in a winter's day in England. I issued the 25th of a pound of bread and a quarter of a pint of water, as yesterday. Latitude observed 14 degrees 50 minutes south; course north 71 degrees west distance 102 miles; and longitude by account 11 degrees 39 minutes west from Tofoa.
In the evening it rained hard and we again experienced a dreadful night.

Tuesday 12.
At length the day came and showed to me a miserable set of beings, full of wants, without anything to relieve them. Some complained of great pain in their bowels, and everyone of having almost lost the use of his limbs. The little sleep we got was no ways refreshing as we were covered with sea and rain. I served a spoonful of rum at day-dawn, and the usual allowance of bread and water for breakfast, dinner, and supper.
At noon it was almost calm, no sun to be seen, and some of us shivering with cold. Course since yesterday west by north distance 89 miles; latitude by account 14 degrees 33 minutes south; longitude made 13 degrees 9 minutes west. The direction of our course was to pass to the northward of the New Hebrides.
The wet weather continued and in the afternoon the wind came from the southward, blowing fresh in squalls. As there was no prospect of getting our clothes dried I recommended to everyone to strip and wring them through the salt water, by which means they received a warmth that while wet with rain they could not have.
This afternoon we saw a kind of fruit on the water which Nelson told me was the Barringtonia of Forster and, as I saw the same again in the morning, and some men-of-war birds, I was led to believe that we were not far from land.
We continued constantly shipping seas and baling, and were very wet and cold in the night; but I could not afford the allowance of rum at daybreak.

Wednesday 13.
At noon I had a sight of the sun, latitude 14 degrees 17 minutes south. Course west by north 79 miles; longitude made 14 degrees 28 minutes west. All this day we were constantly shipping water and suffered much cold and shiverings in the night.

Thursday 14.
Fresh gales at south-east and gloomy weather with rain and a high sea. At six in the morning we saw land from south-west by south eight leagues to north-west by west three-quarters west six leagues, which soon after appeared to be four islands, one of them much larger than the others, and all of them high and remarkable. At noon we discovered a small island and some rocks bearing north-west by north four leagues, and another island west eight leagues, so that the whole were six in number; the four I had first seen bearing from south half east to south-west by south; our distance three leagues from the nearest island. My latitude observed was 13 degrees 29 minutes south, and longitude by account from Tofoa 15 degrees 49 minutes west; course since yesterday noon north 63 degrees west distance 89 miles. At four in the afternoon we passed the westernmost island.

Friday 15.
At one in the morning another island was discovered bearing west-north-west five leagues distance, and at eight o'clock we saw it for the last time bearing north-east seven leagues. A number of gannets, boobies, and men-of-war birds were seen.
These islands lie between the latitude of 13 degrees 16 minutes and 14 degrees 10 minutes south: their longitude according to my reckoning 15 degrees 51 minutes to 17 degrees 6 minutes west from the island Tofoa.* The largest island I judged to be about twenty leagues in circuit, the others five or six. The easternmost is the smallest island and most remarkable, having a high sugar loaf hill.
(*Footnote. By making a proportional allowance for the error afterwards found in the dead reckoning I estimate the longitude of these islands to be from 167 degrees 17 minutes east to 168 degrees 34 minutes east from Greenwich.)
The sight of these islands served only to increase the misery of our situation. We were very little better than starving with plenty in view; yet to attempt procuring any relief was attended with so much danger that prolonging of life, even in the midst of misery, was thought preferable, while there remained hopes of being able to surmount our hardships. For my own part I consider the general run of cloudy and wet weather to be a blessing of Providence. Hot weather would have caused us to have died with thirst; and probably being so constantly covered with rain or sea protected us from that dreadful calamity.
As I had nothing to assist my memory I could not then determine whether these islands were a part of the New Hebrides or not: I believe them to be a new discovery which I have since found true but, though they were not seen either by Monsieur Bougainville or Captain Cook, they are so nearly in the neighbourhood of the New Hebrides that they must be considered as part of the same group. They are fertile and inhabited, as I saw smoke in several places.
The wind was at south-east with rainy weather all day. The night was very dark, not a star could be seen to steer by, and the sea broke continually over us. I found it necessary to counteract as much as possible the effect of the southerly winds to prevent being driven too near New Guinea, for in general we were forced to keep so much before the sea that if we had not, at intervals of moderate weather, steered a more southerly course we should inevitably from a continuance of the gales have been thrown in sight of that coast: in which case there would most probably have been an end to our voyage.

Saturday 16.
In addition to our miserable allowance of one 25th of a pound of bread and a quarter of a pint of water I issued for dinner about an ounce of salt pork to each person. I was often solicited for this pork, but I considered it more proper to issue it in small quantities than to suffer it to be all used at once or twice, which would have been done if I had allowed it.
At noon I observed in 13 degrees 33 minutes south, longitude made from Tofoa 19 degrees 27 minutes west; course north 82 degrees west, distance 101 miles. The sun breaking out through the clouds gave us hopes of drying our wet clothes, but the sunshine was of short duration. We had strong breezes at south-east by south and dark gloomy weather with storms of thunder, lightning, and rain. The night was truly horrible, and not a star to be seen; so that our steerage was uncertain.

Sunday 17.
At dawn of day I found every person complaining, and some of them solicited extra allowance, which I positively refused. Our situation was miserable: always wet, and suffering extreme cold in the night without the least shelter from the weather. Being constantly obliged to bale to keep the boat from filling was perhaps not to be reckoned an evil as it gave us exercise.
The little rum we had was of great service: when our nights were particularly distressing I generally served a teaspoonful or two to each person: and it was always joyful tidings when they heard of my intentions.
At noon a water-spout was very near on board of us. I issued an ounce of pork in addition to the allowance of bread and water; but before we began to eat every person stripped and, having wrung their clothes through the seawater, found much warmth and refreshment. Course since yesterday noon west-south-west distance 100 miles; latitude by account 14 degrees 11 minutes south and longitude made 21 degrees 3 minutes west.
The night was dark and dismal: the sea constantly breaking over us and nothing but the wind and waves to direct our steerage. It was my intention if possible to make New Holland to the southward of Endeavour straits, being sensible that it was necessary to preserve such a situation as would make a southerly wind a fair one, that we might range along the reefs till an opening should be found into smooth water, and we the sooner be able to pick up some refreshments.

Monday 18.
In the morning the rain abated, when we stripped and wrung our clothes through the seawater as usual, which refreshed us greatly. Every person complained of violent pain in their bones; I was only surprised that no one was yet laid up. The customary allowance of one 25th of a pound of bread and a quarter of a pint of water was served at breakfast, dinner, and supper.
At noon I deduced my situation by account, for we had no glimpse of the sun, to be in latitude 14 degrees 52 minutes south; course since yesterday noon west-south-west 106 miles; longitude made from Tofoa 22 degrees 45 minutes west. Saw many boobies and noddies, a sign of being in the neighbourhood of land. In the night we had very severe lightning with heavy rain and were obliged to keep baling without intermission.

Tuesday 19.
Very bad weather and constant rain. At noon latitude by account 14 degrees 37 minutes south; course since yesterday north 81 degrees west, distance 100 miles; longitude made 24 degrees 30 minutes west. With the allowance of bread and water served half an ounce of pork to each person for dinner.

Wednesday 20.
Fresh breezes east-north-east with constant rain, at times a deluge. Always baling.
At dawn of day some of my people seemed half dead: our appearances were horrible, and I could look no way but I caught the eye of someone in distress. Extreme hunger was now too evident, but no one suffered from thirst, nor had we much inclination to drink, that desire perhaps being satisfied through the skin. The little sleep we got was in the midst of water, and we constantly awoke with severe cramps and pains in our bones. This morning I served about two teaspoonfuls of rum to each person and the allowance of bread and water as usual. At noon the sun broke out and revived everyone. I found we were in latitude 14 degrees 49 minutes south; longitude made 25 degrees 46 minutes west; course south 88 degrees west distance 75 miles.
All the afternoon we were so covered with rain and salt water that we could scarcely see. We suffered extreme cold and everyone dreaded the approach of night. Sleep, though we longed for it, afforded no comfort: for my own part I almost lived without it.

Thursday 21.
About two o'clock in the morning we were overwhelmed with a deluge of rain. It fell so heavy that we were afraid it would fill the boat, and were obliged to bale with all our might. At dawn of day I served a larger allowance of rum. Towards noon the rain abated and the sun shone, but we were miserably cold and wet, the sea breaking constantly over us so that, notwithstanding the heavy rain, we had not been able to add to our stock of fresh water. Latitude by observation 14 degrees 29 minutes south, and longitude made by account from Tofoa 27 degrees 25 minutes west; course since yesterday noon north 78 degrees west 99 miles. I now considered myself nearly on a meridian with the east part of New Guinea.

Friday 22.
Strong gales from east-south-east to south-south-east, a high sea, and dark dismal night.
Our situation this day was extremely calamitous. We were obliged to take the course of the sea, running right before it and watching with the utmost care as the least error in the helm would in a moment have been our destruction.
At noon it blew very hard and the foam of the sea kept running over our stern and quarters; I however got propped up and made an observation of the latitude in 14 degrees 17 minutes south; course north 85 degrees west distance 130 miles; longitude made 29 degrees 38 minutes west.
The misery we suffered this night exceeded the preceding. The sea flew over us with great force and kept us baling with horror and anxiety.

Saturday 23.
At dawn of day I found everyone in a most distressed condition, and I began to fear that another such night would put an end to the lives of several who seemed no longer able to support their sufferings. I served an allowance of two teaspoonfuls of rum, after drinking which, having wrung our clothes and taken our breakfast of bread and water, we became a little refreshed.
Towards noon the weather became fair, but with very little abatement of the gale and the sea remained equally high. With some difficulty I observed the latitude to be 13 degrees 44 minutes south: course since yesterday noon north 74 degrees west, distance 116 miles; longitude made 31 degrees 32 minutes west from Tofoa.
The wind moderated in the evening and the weather looked much better, which rejoiced all hands so that they ate their scanty allowance with more satisfaction than for some time past. The night also was fair but, being always wet with the sea, we suffered much from the cold.

Sunday 24.
A fine morning, I had the pleasure to see, produced some cheerful countenances and, the first time for 15 days past, we experienced comfort from the warmth of the sun. We stripped and hung our clothes up to dry, which were by this time become so threadbare that they would not keep out either wet or cold.
At noon I observed in latitude 13 degrees 33 minutes south; longitude by account from Tofoa 33 degrees 28 minutes west; course north 84 degrees west, distance 114 miles. With the usual allowance of bread and water for dinner I served an ounce of pork to each person. This afternoon we had many birds about us which are never seen far from land, such as boobies and noddies.
As the sea began to run fair, and we shipped but little water, I took the opportunity to examine into the state of our bread and found that, according to the present mode of issuing, there was a sufficient quantity remaining for 29 days allowance, by which time I hoped we should be able to reach Timor. But as this was very uncertain and it was possible that, after all, we might be obliged to go to Java, I determined to proportion the allowance so as to make our stock hold out six weeks. I was apprehensive that this would be ill received, and that it would require my utmost resolution to enforce it for, small as the quantity was which I intended to take away for our future good, yet it might appear to my people like robbing them of life, and some, who were less patient than their companions, I expected would very ill brook it. However on my representing the necessity of guarding against delays that might be occasioned in our voyage by contrary winds, or other causes, and promising to enlarge upon the allowance as we got on, they cheerfully agreed to my proposal. It was accordingly settled that every person should receive one 25th of a pound of bread for breakfast, and the same quantity for dinner, so that by omitting the proportion for supper, we had 43 days allowance.

Monday 25.
At noon some noddies came so near to us that one of them was caught by hand. This bird was about the size of a small pigeon. I divided it with its entrails into 18 portions, and by a well-known method at sea of Who shall have this?* it was distributed with the allowance of bread and water for dinner, and ate up bones and all, with salt water for sauce. I observed the latitude 13 degrees 32 minutes south; longitude made 35 degrees 19 minutes west; course north 89 degrees west, distance 108 miles.
(*Footnote. One person turns his back on the object that is to be divided: another then points separately to the portions, and each of them asking aloud, "Who shall have this?" to which the first answers by naming somebody. This impartial method of division gives every man an equal chance of the best share.)
In the evening several boobies flying very near to us we had the good fortune to catch one of them. This bird is as large as a duck: like the noddy it has received its name from seamen for suffering itself to be caught on the masts and yards of ships. They are the most presumptive proofs of being in the neighbourhood of land of any seafowl we are acquainted with. I directed the bird to be killed for supper, and the blood to be given to three of the people who were the most distressed for want of food. The body, with the entrails, beak, and feet, I divided into 18 shares, and with an allowance of bread, which I made a merit of granting, we made a good supper, compared with our usual fare.

Tuesday 26.
Fresh breezes from the south-east with fine weather. In the morning we caught another booby so that Providence appeared to be relieving our wants in an extraordinary manner. Towards noon we passed a great many pieces of the branches of trees, some of which appeared to have been no long time in the water. I had a good observation for the latitude, and found our situation to be in 13 degrees 41 minutes south; longitude by account from Tofoa 37 degrees 13 minutes west; course south 85 degrees west, 112 miles. The people were overjoyed at the addition to their dinner which was distributed in the same manner as on the preceding evening, giving the blood to those who were the most in want of food.
To make the bread a little savoury most of the people frequently dipped it in salt water; but I generally broke mine into small pieces and ate it in my allowance of water, out of a coconut shell with a spoon, economically avoiding to take too large a piece at a time, so that I was as long at dinner as if it had been a much more plentiful meal.
The weather was now serene, which nevertheless was not without its inconveniences, for we began to feel distress of a different kind from that which we had lately been accustomed to suffer. The heat of the sun was so powerful that several of the people were seized with a languor and faintness which made life indifferent. We were so fortunate as to catch two boobies in the evening: their stomachs contained several flying-fish and small cuttlefish, all of which I saved to be divided for dinner the next day.

Wednesday 27.
A fresh breeze at east-south-east with fair weather. We passed much driftwood this forenoon and saw many birds; I therefore did not hesitate to pronounce that we were near the reefs of New Holland. From my recollection of Captain Cook's survey of this coast I considered the direction of it to be north-west, and I was therefore satisfied that, with the wind to the southward of east, I could always clear any dangers.
At noon I observed in latitude 13 degrees 26 minutes south; course since yesterday north 82 degrees west, distance 109 miles; longitude made 39 degrees 4 minutes. After writing my account I divided the two birds with their entrails and the contents of their maws into 18 portions and, as the prize was a very valuable one it was divided as before, by calling out Who shall have this? so that today, with the allowance of a 25th of a pound of bread at breakfast, and another at dinner, with the proportion of water, I was happy to see that every person thought he had feasted.
In the evening we saw a gannet; and the clouds remained so fixed in the west that I had little doubt of our being near the land. The people, after taking their allowance of water for supper, amused themselves with conversing on the probability of what we should find.

Thursday 28.
At one in the morning the person at the helm heard the sound of breakers, and I no sooner lifted up my head than I saw them close under our lee, not more than a quarter of a mile distant from us. I immediately hauled on a wind to the north-north-east and in ten minutes time we could neither see nor hear them.
I have already mentioned my reason for making New Holland so far to the southward: for I never doubted of numerous openings in the reef through which I could have access to the shore and, knowing the inclination of the coast to be to the north-west and the wind mostly to the southward of east, I could with ease range such a barrier of reefs till I should find a passage, which now became absolutely necessary, without a moment's loss of time. The idea of getting into smooth water and finding refreshments kept my people's spirits up: their joy was very great after we had got clear of the breakers to which we had approached much nearer than I thought was possible, without first discovering them.

Friday 29.
In the morning at daylight, we could see nothing of the land or of the reefs. We bore away again and at nine o'clock saw the reefs. The sea broke furiously over every part, and we had no sooner got near to them than the wind came at east, so that we could only lie along the line of the breakers, within which we saw the water so smooth that every person already anticipated the heart-felt satisfaction he should receive as soon as we could get within them. I now found we were embayed for we could not lie clear with the sails, the wind having backed against us; and the sea set in so heavy towards the reef that our situation was become unsafe. We could effect but little with the oars, having scarce strength to pull them, and I began to apprehend that we should be obliged to attempt pushing over the reef. Even this I did not despair of effecting with success when happily we discovered a break in the reef, about one mile from us, and at the same time an island of a moderate height within it, nearly in the same direction, bearing west half north. I entered the passage with a strong stream running to the westward and found it about a quarter of a mile broad, with every appearance of deep water.
On the outside the reef inclined to the north-east for a few miles, and from thence to the north-west: on the south side of the entrance it inclined to the south-south-west as far as I could see it, and I conjecture that a similar passage to this which we now entered may be found near the breakers that I first discovered which are 23 miles south of this channel.
I did not recollect what latitude Providential channel* lies in, but I considered it to be within a few miles of this, which is situate in 12 degrees 51 minutes south latitude.
(*Footnote. Providential Channel is laid down by Captain Cook in 12 degrees 34 minutes south, longitude 143 degrees 33 minutes east.)
Being now happily within the reefs and in smooth water I endeavoured to keep near them to try for fish, but the tide set us to the north-west, I therefore bore away in that direction and, having promised to land on the first convenient spot we could find, all our past hardships seemed already to be forgotten.
At noon I had a good observation by which our latitude was 12 degrees 46 minutes south, whence the foregoing situations may be considered as determined with some exactness. The island first seen bore west-south-west five leagues. This, which I have called the island Direction, will in fair weather always show the channel, from which it bears due west, and may be seen as soon as the reefs from a ship's masthead: it lies in the latitude of 12 degrees 51 minutes south. These however are marks too small for a ship to hit unless it can hereafter be ascertained that passages through the reef are numerous along the coast which I am inclined to think they are, in which case there would be little risk even if the wind was directly on the shore.
My longitude made by dead reckoning from the island Tofoa to our passage through the reef is 40 degrees 10 minutes west. Providential channel, I imagine, must lie very nearly under the same meridian with our passage, by which it appears we had out-run our reckoning 1 degree 9 minutes.
We now returned God thanks for his gracious protection, and with much content took our miserable allowance of a 25th of a pound of bread and a quarter of a pint of water for dinner.

Progress to the Northward along the Coast of New Holland. Land on different Islands in search of Supplies.

May 1789.
As we advanced within the reefs the coast began to show itself very distinctly in a variety of high and low land, some parts of which were covered with wood. In our way towards the shore we fell in with a point of a reef which is connected with that towards the sea, and here we came to a grapnel and tried to catch fish but had no success. The island Direction at this time bore south three or four leagues. Two islands lay about four miles to the west by north, and appeared eligible for a resting-place, if for nothing more; but on our approach to the nearest island it proved to be only a heap of stones, and its size too inconsiderable to shelter the boat. We therefore proceeded to the next, which was close to it and towards the main. On the north-west side of this I found a bay and a fine sandy point to land at. Our distance was about a quarter of a mile from a projecting part of the main, which bore from south-west by south to north-north-west three-quarters west. We landed to examine if there were any signs of the natives being near us: we saw some old fireplaces but nothing to make me apprehend that this would be an unsafe situation for the night. Everyone was anxious to find something to eat, and it was soon discovered that there were oysters on the rocks for the tide was out; but it was nearly dark and only a few could be gathered. I determined therefore to wait till the morning, when I should better know how to proceed, and I directed that one half of our company should sleep on shore and the other half in the boat. We would gladly have made a fire but, as we could not accomplish it, we took our rest for the night, which happily was calm and undisturbed.

Friday 29.
The dawn of day brought greater strength and spirits to us than I expected for, notwithstanding everyone was very weak, there appeared strength sufficient remaining to make me conceive the most favourable hopes of our being able to surmount the difficulties we might yet have to encounter.
As there were no appearances to make me imagine that any of the natives were near us I sent out parties in search of supplies, while others of the people were putting the boat in order that we might be ready to go to sea, in case any unforeseen cause should make it necessary. One of the gudgeons of the rudder had come out in the course of the night and was lost. This, if it had happened at sea, might have been attended with the most serious consequences, as the management of the boat could not have been so nicely preserved as these very heavy seas required. I had been apprehensive of this accident, and had in some measure prepared for it, by having grummets fixed on each quarter of the boat for oars; but our utmost readiness in using them would not probably have saved us. It appears therefore a providential circumstance that it happened in a place of safety, and that it was in our power to remedy the defect; for by great good luck we found a large staple in the boat, which answered the purpose.
The parties returned, highly rejoiced at having found plenty of oysters and fresh water. I had also made a fire by the help of a small magnifying glass and, what was still more fortunate, we found among the few things which had been thrown into the boat and saved a piece of brimstone and a tinderbox, so that I secured fire for the future.
One of the people had been so provident as to bring away with him from the ship a copper pot: by being in possession of this article we were enabled to make a proper use of the supply we now obtained for, with a mixture of bread and a little pork, we made a stew that might have been relished by people of far more delicate appetites, and of which each person received a full pint.
The general complaints of disease among us were a dizziness in the head, great weakness of the joints, and violent tenesmus, most of us having had no evacuation by stool since we left the ship. I had constantly a severe pain at my stomach but none of our complaints were alarming: on the contrary, everyone retained marks of strength that, with a mind possessed of a tolerable share of fortitude, seemed able to bear more fatigue than I imagined we should have to undergo in our voyage to Timor.
As I would not allow the people to expose themselves to the heat of the sun, it being near noon, everyone took his allotment of earth where it was shaded by the bushes for a short sleep.
The oysters which we found grew so fast to the rocks that it was with difficulty they could be broken off, and at length we discovered it to be the most expeditious way to open them where they were fixed. They were of a good size, and well tasted. To add to this happy circumstance in the hollow of the land there grew some wire-grass, which indicated a moist situation. On forcing a stick, about three feet long, into the ground we found water, and with little trouble dug a well which produced as much as our occasions required. It was very good, but I could not determine if it was a spring or not. We were not obliged to make the well deep for it flowed as fast as we emptied it, which, as the soil was apparently too loose to retain water from the rains, renders it probable to be a spring. On the south side of the island likewise we found a small run of good water.
Besides places where fires had been made there were other signs of the natives sometimes resorting to this island. I saw two ill-constructed huts or wigwams which had only one side loosely covered, and a pointed stick was found, about three feet long, with a slit in the end of it to sling stones with, the same as the natives of Van Diemen's land use.
The track of some animal was very discernible and Nelson agreed with me that it was the kangaroo; but whether these animals swim over from the mainland, or are brought here by the natives to breed, it is impossible to determine. The latter is not improbable as they may be taken with less difficulty in a confined spot like this than on the continent.
The island is about a league in circuit: it is a high lump of rocks and stones covered with wood; but the trees are small, the soil, which is very indifferent and sandy, being barely sufficient to produce them. The trees that came within our knowledge were the manchineal and a species of purow; also some palm trees, the tops of which we cut down, and the soft interior part or heart of them was so palatable that it made a good addition to our mess. Nelson discovered some fern-roots which I thought might be good roasted as a substitute for bread, but in this I was mistaken: it however was very serviceable in its natural state to allay thirst, and on that account I directed a quantity to be collected to take into the boat. Many pieces of coconut shells and husk were found about the shore, but we could find no coconut trees, neither did I see any on the main.
I had cautioned the people not to touch any kind of berry or fruit that they might find; yet they were no sooner out of my sight than they began to make free with three different kinds that grew all over the island, eating without any reserve. The symptoms of having eaten too much began at last to frighten some of them but, on questioning others who had taken a more moderate allowance, their minds were a little quieted. The others however became equally alarmed in their turn, dreading that such symptoms would come on, and that they were all poisoned, so that they regarded each other with the strongest marks of apprehension, uncertain what would be the issue of their imprudence. Fortunately the fruit proved wholesome and good. One sort grew on a small delicate kind of vine; they were the size of a large gooseberry and very like in substance, but had only a sweet taste; the skin was a pale red, streaked with yellow the long way of the fruit: it was pleasant and agreeable. Another kind grew on bushes like that which is called the seaside grape in the West Indies, but the fruit was very different, being more like elderberries, and grew in clusters in the same manner. The third sort was a blackberry; this was not in such plenty as the others and resembled a bullace, or large kind of sloe, both in size and taste. When I saw that these fruits were eaten by the birds I no longer doubted of their being wholesome, and those who had already tried the experiment, not finding any bad effect, made it a certainty that we might eat of them without danger.
Wild pigeons, parrots, and other birds were about the summit of the island but, having no firearms, relief of that kind was not to be expected unless we should find some unfrequented spot where the birds were so tame that we might take them with our hands.
The shore of this island is very rocky except the place at which we landed, and here I picked up many pieces of pumice-stone. On the part of the main nearest to us were several sandy bays which at low water became an extensive rocky flat. The country had rather a barren appearance except in a few places where it was covered with wood. A remarkable range of rocks lay a few miles to the south-west, and a high peaked hill seemed to terminate the coast towards the sea, with islands to the southward. A high fair cape showed the direction of the coast to the north-west about seven leagues distant; and two small isles lay three or four leagues to the northward of our present station.
I saw a few bees or wasps and several lizards; and the blackberry bushes were full of ants nests, webbed like a spider's but so close and compact as not to admit the rain. A trunk of a tree about 50 feet long lay on the beach, from which I conclude that a heavy sea sets in here with a northerly wind.
This day being the anniversary of the restoration of King Charles the Second, and the name not being inapplicable to our present situation (for we were restored to fresh life and strength) I named this Restoration Island; for I thought it probable that Captain Cook might not have taken notice of it. The other names which I have presumed to give the different parts of the coast are meant only to show my route more distinctly.
At noon I observed the latitude of the island to be 12 degrees 39 minutes south, our course having been north 66 degrees west, distance 18 miles from yesterday noon. The wind was at east-south-east with very fine weather.
In the afternoon I sent parties out again to gather oysters, with which and some of the inner part of the palm-top we made another good stew for supper, each person receiving a full pint and a half; but I refused bread to this meal for I considered that our wants might yet be very great, and was intent on saving our principal support whenever it was in my power. After supper we again divided and those who were on shore slept by a good fire.

Saturday 30.
In the morning I discovered a visible alteration in our company for the better, and I sent them away again to gather oysters. We had now only two pounds of pork left. This article, which I could not keep under lock and key as I did the bread, had been pilfered by some inconsiderate person, but everyone denied having any knowledge of this act; I therefore resolved to put it out of their power for the future by sharing what remained for our dinner. While the party was out picking up oysters I got the boat in readiness for sea, and filled all our water vessels, which amounted to nearly 60 gallons.
The party being returned, dinner was soon ready, which was as plentiful a meal as the supper on the preceding evening, and with the pork I gave an allowance of bread. As it was not yet noon I sent the people once more to gather oysters for a sea store, recommending to them to be as diligent as possible for that I was determined to sail in the afternoon.
At noon I again observed the latitude 12 degrees 39 minutes south; it was then high-water, the tide had risen three feet, but I could not be certain from whence the flood came. I deduce the time of high-water at full and change to be ten minutes past seven in the morning.
Early in the afternoon the people returned with the few oysters that they had collected and everything was put into the boat. I then examined the quantity of bread remaining and found 38 days allowance, according to the last mode of issuing a 25th of a pound at breakfast and at dinner.
Fair weather and moderate breezes at east-south-east and south-east.
Being ready for sea I directed every person to attend prayers. At four o'clock we were preparing to embark when about twenty of the natives appeared, running and hallooing to us, on the opposite shore. They were each armed with a spear or lance and a short weapon which they carried in their left hand: they made signs for us to come to them. On the top of the hills we saw the heads of many more: whether these were their wives and children or others who waited for our landing, meaning not to show themselves lest we might be intimidated, I cannot say but, as I found we were discovered to be on the coast, I thought it prudent to make the best of our way for fear of being pursued by canoes, though, from the accounts of Captain Cook, the chance was that there were very few if any of consequence on any part of the coast. I passed these people as near as I could with safety: they were naked and apparently black, and their hair or wool bushy and short.
I directed my course within two small islands that lie to the north of Restoration Island, passing between them and the mainland towards Fair Cape with a strong tide in my favour, so that I was abreast of it by eight o'clock. The coast we passed was high and woody. As I could see no land without Fair Cape I concluded that the coast inclined to the north-west and west-north-west: I therefore steered more towards the west; but by eleven o'clock at night we met with low land which inclined to the north-east, and at three o'clock in the morning I found that we were embayed, which obliged us to stand back for a short time to the southward.

Sunday 31.
At daybreak I was exceedingly surprised to find the appearance of the country entirely changed, as if in the course of the night we had been transported to another part of the world; for we had now a low sandy coast in view, with very little verdure or anything to indicate that it was at all habitable to a human being except a few patches of small trees or brushwood.
Many small islands were in sight to the north-east about six miles distant. The eastern part of the main bore north four miles, and Fair Cape south-south-east five or six leagues. I took the channel between the nearest island and the mainland, which were about one mile apart, leaving all the islands on the starboard side. Some of these were very pretty spots, covered with wood and well situated for fishing: large shoals of fish were about us but we could not catch any. In passing this strait we saw another party of Indians, seven in number, running towards us, shouting and making signs for us to land. Some of them waved green branches of the bushes which were near them as a token of friendship; but some of their other motions were less friendly. A little farther off we saw a larger party who likewise came towards us. I therefore determined not to land though I much wished to have had some intercourse with these people. Nevertheless I laid the boat close to the rocks and beckoned to them to approach but none of them would come within 200 yards of us. They were armed in the same manner as the people we had seen from Restoration Island; they were stark naked, their colour black, with short bushy hair or wool, and in their appearance were similar to them in every respect. An island of a good height bore north half west four miles from us, at which I resolved to land and from thence to take a look at the coast. At this isle we arrived about eight o'clock in the morning. The shore was rocky but the water was smooth and we landed without difficulty. I sent two parties out, one to the northward and the other to the southward, to seek for supplies, and others I ordered to stay by the boat. On this occasion fatigue and weakness so far got the better of their sense of duty that some of the people expressed their discontent at having worked harder than their companions, and declared that they would rather be without their dinner than go in search of it. One person in particular went so far as to tell me, with a mutinous look, that he was as good a man as myself. It was not possible for me to judge where this might have an end if not stopped in time, therefore to prevent such disputes in future I determined either to preserve my command or die in the attempt and, seizing a cutlass, I ordered him to take hold of another and defend himself, on which he called out that I was going to kill him and immediately made concessions. I did not allow this to interfere further with the harmony of the boat's crew and everything soon became quiet.
The parties continued collecting what they could find, which were some fine oysters and clams and a few small dog-fish that were caught in the holes of the rocks. We also found some rainwater in the hollow of the rocks on the north part of the island, so that of this essential article we were again so fortunate as to obtain a full supply.
After regulating the mode of proceeding I walked to the highest part of the island to consider our route for the night. To my surprise no more of the mainland could be seen here than from below, the northernmost part in sight, which was full of sandhills bearing west by north about three leagues. Except the isles to the east-south-east and south that we had passed I could only discover a small key north-west by north. As this was considerably farther from the main than the spot on which we were at present I judged it would be a more secure resting-place for the night, for here we were liable to an attack, if the Indians had canoes, as they undoubtedly must have observed our landing. My mind being made up on this point I returned after taking a particular look at the island we were on, which I found only to produce a few bushes and some coarse grass, the extent of the whole not being two miles in circuit. On the north side in a sandy bay I saw an old canoe about 33 feet long, lying bottom upwards and half buried in the beach. It was made of three pieces, the bottom entire, to which the sides were sewed in the common way. It had a sharp projecting prow rudely carved in resemblance of the head of a fish; the extreme breadth was about three feet and I imagine it was capable of carrying 20 men. The discovery of so large a canoe confirmed me in the purpose of seeking a more retired place for our night's lodging.
At noon the parties were all returned but had found much difficulty in gathering the oysters from their close adherence to the rocks, and the clams were scarce: I therefore saw that it would be of little use to remain longer in this place, as we should not be able to collect more than we could eat. I named this Sunday Island: it lies north by west three-quarters west from Restoration Island; the latitude by a good observation 11 degrees 58 minutes south.
We had a fresh breeze at south-east by south with fair weather. At two o'clock in the afternoon we dined, each person having a full pint and a half of stewed oysters and clams, thickened with small beans which Nelson informed me were a species of Dolichos. Having eaten heartily and completed our water I waited to determine the time of high-water, which I found to be at three o'clock, and the rise of the tide about five feet. According to this it is high-water on the full and change at 19 minutes past 9 in the morning: I observed the flood to come from the southward, though at Restoration Island I thought it came from the northward. I think Captain Cook mentions that he found great irregularity in the set of the flood on this coast.
We steered for the key seen in the north-west by north where we arrived just at dark, but found it so surrounded by a reef of rocks that I could not land without danger of staving the boat; and on that account we came to a grapnel for the night.
Monday June 1.
At dawn of day we got on shore and tracked the boat into shelter for, the wind blowing fresh without and the ground being rocky, it was not safe to trust her at a grapnel lest she should be blown to sea: I was therefore obliged to let her ground in the course of the ebb. From appearances I expected that if we remained till night we should meet with turtle as we discovered recent tracks of them. Innumerable birds of a noddy kind made this island their resting-place; so that we had reason to flatter ourselves with hopes of getting supplies in greater abundance than it had hitherto been in our power. Our situation was at least four leagues distant from the main. We were on the north-westernmost of four small keys which were surrounded by a reef of rocks connected by sandbanks except between the two northernmost, and there likewise it was dry at low water, the whole forming a lagoon island into which the tide flowed: at this entrance I kept the boat.
As usual I sent parties away in search of supplies but, to our great disappointment, we could only get a few clams and some dolichos: with these and the oysters we had brought from Sunday Island I made up a mess for dinner with the addition of a small quantity of bread.
Towards noon Nelson and some others who had been to the easternmost key returned, but Nelson was in so weak a condition that he was obliged to be supported by two men. His complaint was a violent heat in his bowels, a loss of sight, much drought, and an inability to walk. This I found was occasioned by his being unable to support the heat of the sun and that, when he was fatigued and faint, instead of retiring into the shade to rest he had continued to attempt more than his strength was equal to. I was glad to find that he had no fever; and it was now that the little wine which I had so carefully saved became of real use. I gave it in very small quantities with some pieces of bread soaked in it; and he soon began to recover. The boatswain and carpenter also were ill and complained of headache and sickness of the stomach. Others who had not had any evacuation by stool became shockingly distressed with the tenesmus so that there were but few without complaints. An idea prevailed that the sickness of the boatswain and carpenter was occasioned by eating the dolichos. Myself however and some others who had taken the same food felt no inconvenience; but the truth was that many of the people had eaten a large quantity of them raw, and Nelson informed me that they were constantly teasing him whenever a berry was found to know if it was good to eat; so that it would not have been surprising if many of them had been really poisoned.
Our dinner was not so well relished as at Sunday Island because we had mixed the dolichos with our stew. The oysters and soup however were eaten by everyone except Nelson whom I fed with a few small pieces of bread soaked in half a glass of wine, and he continued to mend.
In my walk round the island I found several coconut shells, the remains of an old wigwam, and the backs of two turtless, but no sign of any quadruped. One of the people found three seafowl's eggs.
As is common on such spots the soil is little other than sand, yet it produced small toa-trees and some others that we were not acquainted with. There were fish in the lagoon, but we could not catch any. Our wants therefore were not likely to be supplied here, not even with water for our daily expense: nevertheless I determined to wait till the morning, that we might try our success in the night for turtle and birds. A quiet night's rest also, I conceived, would be of essential service to those who were unwell.
The wigwam and turtle shell were proofs that the natives at times visited this place, and that they had canoes the remains of the large canoe that we saw at Sunday Island left no room to doubt: but I did not apprehend that we ran any risk by remaining here a short time. I directed our fire however to be made in the thicket that we might not be discovered by its light.
At noon I observed the latitude of this island to be 11 degrees 47 minutes south. The mainland extended towards the north-west and was full of white sandhills: another small island lay within us, bearing west by north one quarter north three leagues distant. Our situation being very low we could see nothing of the reef towards the sea.
The afternoon was advantageously spent in sleep. There were however a few not disposed to it, and those were employed in dressing some clams to take with us for the next day's dinner: others we cut up in slices to dry, which I knew was the most valuable supply we could find here, but they were very scarce.
Towards evening I cautioned everyone against making too large a fire or suffering it after dark to blaze up. Mr. Samuel and Mr. Peckover had superintendence of this business, while I was strolling about the beach to observe if I thought it could be seen from the main. I was just satisfied that it could not when on a sudden the island appeared all in a blaze that might have been discerned at a much more considerable distance. I ran to learn the cause and found that it was occasioned by the imprudence and obstinacy of one of the party who in my absence had insisted on having a fire to himself, in making which the flames caught the neighbouring grass and rapidly spread. This misconduct might have produced very serious consequences by discovering our situation to the natives for, if they had attacked us, we had neither arms nor strength to oppose an enemy. Thus the relief which I expected from a little sleep was totally lost and I anxiously waited for the flowing of the tide that we might proceed to sea.
It was high-water at half-past five this evening whence I deduced the time on the full and change of the moon to be 58 past 10 in the morning: the rise was nearly five feet. I could not observe the set of the flood but imagined it to come from the southward, and that I was mistaken at Restoration Island as I found the time of high-water gradually later the more we advanced to the northward.
At Restoration Island high-water full and change : 7 hours 10. Sunday Island high-water full and change : 9 hours 19. Here high-water full and change : 10 hours 58.
After eight o'clock Mr. Samuel and Mr. Peckover went out to watch for turtle and three men went to the east key to endeavour to catch birds. All the others, complaining of being sick, took their rest, except Mr. Hayward and Mr. Elphinston whom I directed to keep watch. About midnight the bird party returned with only twelve noddies, birds which I have already described to be about the size of pigeons: but if it had not been for the folly and obstinacy of one of the party, who separated from the other two and disturbed the birds, they might have caught a great number. I was so much provoked at my plans being thus defeated that I gave this offender a good beating.* I now went in search of the turtling party who had taken great pains but without success. This did not surprise me as it was not to be expected that turtle would come near us after the noise which had been made at the beginning of the evening in extinguishing the fire. I therefore desired them to come back, but they requested to stay a little longer as they still hoped to find some before daylight: however they returned by three o'clock without any reward for their labour.
(*Footnote. Robert lamb. This man when he came to Java acknowledged he had eaten nine birds raw after he separated from his two companions.)

Tuesday 2.
The birds we half dressed that they might keep the better: and these with a few clams made the whole of the supply procured here. I tied a few gilt buttons and some pieces of iron to a tree for any of the natives that might come after us and, finding my invalids much better for their night's rest, we embarked and departed by dawn of day. Wind at south-east; course to the north by west.
When we had run two leagues to the northward the sea suddenly became rough which, not having before experienced since we were within the reefs, I concluded to be occasioned by an open channel to the ocean. Soon afterwards we met with a large shoal on which were two sandy keys; between these and two others, four miles to the west, I passed on to the northward, the sea still continuing to be rough.
Towards noon I fell in with six other keys, most of which produced some small trees and brushwood. These formed a pleasing contrast with the mainland we had passed which was full of sandhills. The country continued hilly and the northernmost land, the same we had seen from the lagoon island, appeared like downs, sloping towards the sea. Nearly abreast of us was a flat-topped hill which on account of its shape I called Pudding-pan hill; and a little to the northward were two other hills which we called the Paps; and here was a small tract of country without sand, the eastern part of which forms a cape whence the coast inclines to the north-west by north.
At noon I observed in the latitude of 11 degrees 18 minutes south the cape bearing west distant ten miles. Five small keys bore from north-east to south-east, the nearest of them about two miles distant, and a low sandy key between us and the cape bore west distant four miles. My course from the lagoon island had been north half west distant 30 miles.
I am sorry it was not in my power to obtain a sufficient knowledge of the depth of water but in our situation nothing could be undertaken that might have occasioned delay. It may however be understood that to the best of my judgment from appearances a ship may pass wherever I have omitted to represent danger.
I divided six birds and issued one 25th of a pound of bread with half a pint of water to each person for dinner, and I gave half a glass of wine to Nelson, who was now so far recovered as to require no other indulgence.
The gunner when he left the ship brought his watch with him, by which we had regulated out time till today, when unfortunately it stopped; so that noon, sunrise, and sunset, are the only parts of the 24 hours of which from henceforward I can speak with certainty as to time.
The wind blew fresh from the south-south-east and south-east all the afternoon with fair weather. As we stood to the north by west we found more sea, which I attributed to our receiving less shelter from the reefs to the eastward: it is probable they did not extend so far north as this; at least it may be concluded that there is not a continued barrier to prevent shipping having access to the shore. I observed that the stream set to the north-west, which I considered to be the flood. In some places along the coast we saw patches of wood. At five o'clock, steering to the north-west, we passed a large and fair inlet into which I imagine there is a safe and commodious entrance; it lies in latitude 11 degrees south. About three leagues to the northward of this is an island, at which we arrived about sunset, and took shelter for the night under a sandy point which was the only part we could land at. This being rather a wild situation I thought it best to sleep in the boat: nevertheless I sent a party away to see if anything could be got, but they returned without success. They saw a great number of turtle bones and shells where the natives had been feasting, and their last visit seemed to be of late date. The island was covered with wood, but in other respects it was a lump of rocks.

Wednesday 3.
We lay at a grapnel till daylight with a very fresh gale and cloudy weather. The main bore from south-east by south to north-north-west half west three leagues, and a mountainous island with a flat top, north by west four or five leagues, between which and the mainland were several other islands. The spot we were at, which I call Turtle Island, lies in latitude by account 10 degrees 52 minutes south and 42 miles west from Restoration Island. Abreast of it the coast has the appearance of a sandy desert, but improves about three leagues farther to the northward where it terminates in a point, near to which are many small islands. I sailed between these islands where I found no bottom at twelve fathoms; the high mountainous island with a flat top and four rocks to the south-east of it, that I call the Brothers, being on my starboard hand. Soon after an extensive opening appeared in the mainland, in which were a number of high islands. I called this the Bay of Islands. We continued steering to the north-west. Several islands and keys were in sight to the northward: the most northerly island was mountainous, having on it a very high round hill, and a smaller was remarkable for a single peaked hill.
The coast to the northward and westward of the Bay of Islands is high and woody and has a broken appearance, with many islands close to it, among which there are fine bays and convenient places for shipping. The northernmost of these islands I call Wednesday Island: to the north-west of this we fell in with a large reef which I believe joins a number of keys that were in sight from the north-west to the east-north-east. We therefore stood to the south-west half a league when it was noon, and I had a good observation of the latitude in 10 degrees 31 minutes south. Wednesday Island bore east by south five miles; the westernmost land in sight south-west two or three leagues; the islands to the northward from north-west by west to north-east, and the reef from west to north-east distant one mile. I was now tolerably certain that we should be clear of New Holland in the afternoon.
I know not how far this reef extends. It may be a continuation or a detached part of the range of shoals that surround the coast. I believe the mountainous islands to be separate from the shoals, and have no doubt that near them may be found good passages for ships. But I rather recommend to those who are to pass this strait from the eastward to take their direction from the coast of New Guinea: yet I likewise think that a ship coming from the southward will find a fair strait in the latitude of 10 degrees south. I much wished to have ascertained this point but in our distressful situation any increase of fatigue or loss of time might have been attended with the most fatal consequences. I therefore determined to pass on without delay.
As an addition to our dinner of bread and water I served to each person six oysters.
At two o'clock in the afternoon as we were steering to the south-west towards the westernmost part of the land in sight we fell in with some large sandbanks that run off from the coast: I therefore called this Shoal Cape. We were obliged to steer to the northward again till we got round the shoals, when I directed the course to the west.
At four o'clock the westernmost of the islands to the northward bore north four leagues; Wednesday Island east by north five leagues, and shoal cape south-east by east two leagues. A small island was seen bearing west, at which we arrived before dark and found that it was only a rock where boobies resort, for which reason I called it Booby Island. Here terminated the rocks and shoals of the north part of New Holland for except Booby Island no land was seen to the westward of south after three o'clock this afternoon.
I find that Booby island was seen by Captain Cook and, by a remarkable coincidence of ideas, received from him the same name, but I cannot with certainty reconcile the situation of some parts of the coast that I have seen to his survey. I ascribe this to the various forms in which land appears when seen from the different heights of a ship and a boat. The chart I have given is by no means meant to supersede that made by Captain Cook, who had better opportunities than I had and was in every respect properly provided for surveying. The intention of mine is chiefly to render this narrative more intelligible, and to show in what manner the coast appeared to me from an open boat. I have little doubt but that the opening which I named the Bay of Islands is Endeavour Straits; and that our track was to the northward of Prince of Wales' Isles. Perhaps, by those who shall hereafter navigate these seas, more advantage may be derived from the possession of both our charts than from either of them singly.

Passage from New Holland to the Island Timor. Arrive at Coupang. Reception there.

June 1789.

Wednesday 3.
At eight o'clock in the evening we once more launched into the open ocean. Miserable as our situation was in every respect I was secretly surprised to see that it did not appear to affect anyone so strongly as myself; on the contrary it seemed as if they had embarked on a voyage to Timor in a vessel sufficiently calculated for safety and convenience. So much confidence gave me great pleasure and I may venture to assert that to this cause our preservation is chiefly to be attributed.
I encouraged everyone with hopes that eight or ten days would bring us to a land of safety; and, after praying to God for a continuance of his most gracious protection, I served an allowance of water for supper and directed our course to the west-south-west to counteract the southerly winds in case they should blow strong.
We had been just six days on the coast of New Holland in the course of which we found oysters, a few clams, some birds, and water. But perhaps a benefit nearly equal to this we received by having been relieved from the fatigue of being constantly in the boat and enjoying good rest at night. These advantages certainly preserved our lives and, small as the supply was, I am very sensible how much it alleviated our distresses. By this time nature must have sunk under the extremes of hunger and fatigue. Some would have ceased to struggle for a life that only promised wretchedness and misery; and others, though possessed of more bodily strength, must soon have followed their unfortunate companions. Even in our present situation we were most deplorable objects; but the hopes of a speedy relief kept up our spirits. For my own part, incredible as it may appear, I felt neither extreme hunger nor thirst. My allowance contented me, knowing that I could have no more.

Thursday 4.
I served one 25th of a pound of bread and an allowance of water for breakfast and the same for dinner with an addition of six oysters to each person. At noon latitude observed 10 degrees 48 minutes south; course since yesterday noon south 81 degrees west, distance 111 miles; longitude by account from Shoal Cape 1 degree 45 minutes west. A strong tradewind at east-south-east with fair weather.
This day we saw a number of water-snakes that were ringed yellow and black, and towards noon we passed a great deal of rock-weed. Though the weather was fair we were constantly shipping water, which kept two men always employed to bale the boat.

Friday 5.
At noon I observed in latitude 10 degrees 45 minutes south; our course since yesterday west one quarter north, 108 miles; longitude made 3 degrees 35 minutes west. Six oysters were, as yesterday, served to each man, in addition to the usual allowance of bread and water.
In the evening a few boobies came about us, one of which I caught with my hand. The blood was divided among three of the men who were weakest, but the bird I ordered to be kept for our dinner the next day. Served a quarter of a pint of water for supper, and to some who were most in need half a pint. In the course of the night, being constantly wet with the sea, we suffered much cold and shiverings.

Saturday 6.
At daylight I found that some of the clams which had been hung up to dry for sea-store were stolen; but everyone solemnly denied having any knowledge of it. This forenoon we saw a gannet, a sand-lark and some water-snakes which in general were from two or three feet long.
The usual allowance of bread and water was served for breakfast, and the same for dinner with the bird, which I distributed in the usual way, of Who shall have this? I proposed to make Timor about the latitude of 9 degrees 30 minutes south, or 10 degrees south. At noon I observed the latitude to be 10 degrees 19 minutes south; course north 77 degrees west, distance 117 miles; longitude made from the Shoal Cape, the north part of New Holland, 5 degrees 31 minutes west.
In the afternoon I took an opportunity of examining our store of bread, and found remaining 19 days allowance, at the former rate of serving one 25th of a pound three times a day: therefore, as I saw every prospect of a quick passage, I again ventured to grant an allowance for supper, agreeable to my promise at the time it was discontinued.

Sunday 7.
We passed the night miserably wet and cold and in the morning I heard heavy complaints. The sea was high and breaking over us. I could only afford the allowance of bread and water for breakfast, but for dinner I gave out an ounce of dried clams to each person, which was all that remained.
At noon I altered the course to the west-north-west to keep more from the sea, as the wind blew strong. Latitude observed 9 degrees 31 minutes south; course north 57 degrees west, distance 88 miles; longitude made 6 degrees 46 minutes west.
The sea ran very high all this day and we had frequent showers of rain so that we were continually wet and suffered much cold in the night. Mr. Ledward the surgeon, and Lawrence Lebogue, an old hardy seaman, appeared to be giving way very fast. I could only assist them by a teaspoonful or two of wine which I had carefully saved, expecting such a melancholy necessity.

Monday 8.
Wind at south-east. The weather was more moderate than it had been for some days past. A few gannets were seen. At noon I observed in 8 degrees 45 minutes south; course west-north-west one quarter west, 106 miles; longitude made 8 degrees 23 minutes west. The sea being smooth I steered west by south.
At four in the afternoon we caught a small dolphin, which was the first relief of the kind that we obtained. I issued about two ounces to each person, including the offals, and saved the remainder for dinner the next day. Towards evening the wind freshened and it blew strong all night, so that we shipped much water and suffered greatly from the wet and cold.

Tuesday 9.
At daylight as usual I heard much complaining, which my own feelings convinced me was too well founded. I gave the surgeon the Lebogue a little wine but I could afford them no farther relief except encouraging them with hopes that a very few days longer, at our present fine rate of sailing, would bring us to Timor.
Gannets, boobies, men of war and tropic birds, were constantly about us. Served the usual allowance of bread and water and at noon we dined on the remains of the dolphin, which amounted to about an ounce per man. I observed the latitude to be 9 degrees 9 minutes south; longitude made 10 degrees 8 minutes west; course since yesterday noon south 76 degrees west; distance 107 miles.
This afternoon I suffered great sickness from the nature of part of the stomach of the fish which had fallen to my share at dinner. At sunset served an allowance of bread and water for supper.

Wednesday 10.
In the morning after a very comfortless night there was a visible alteration for the worse in many of the people which gave me great apprehensions. An extreme weakness, swelled legs, hollow and ghastly countenances, a more than common inclination to sleep, with an apparent debility of understanding, seemed to me the melancholy presages of an approaching dissolution. The surgeon and Lebogue, in particular, were most miserable objects. I occasionally gave them a few teaspoonfuls of wine out of the little that remained, which greatly assisted them. The hopes of being able to accomplish the voyage was our principal support. The boatswain very innocently told me that he really thought I looked worse than anyone in the boat. The simplicity with which he uttered such an opinion amused me and I returned him a better compliment.
Our latitude at noon was 9 degrees 16 minutes south. Longitude from the north part of New Holland 12 degrees 1 minute west. Course since yesterday noon west half south 111 miles. Birds and rock-weed showed that we were not far from land, but I expected such signs here as there are many islands between the east part of Timor and New Guinea. The night was more moderate than the last.

Thursday 11.
Everyone received the customary allowance of bread and water, and an extra allowance of water was given to those who were most in need. At noon I observed in latitude 9 degrees 41 minutes south; course 77 degrees west, distance 109 miles; longitude made 13 degrees 49 minutes west. I had little doubt of having now passed the meridian of the eastern part of Timor which is laid down in 128 degrees east. This diffused universal joy and satisfaction.
In the afternoon we saw gannets and many other birds, and at sunset we kept a very anxious lookout. In the evening we caught a booby which I reserved for our dinner the next day.

Friday 12.
At three in the morning, with an excess of joy, we discovered Timor bearing from west-south-west to west-north-west, and I hauled on a wind to the north-north-east till daylight, when the land bore from south-west by south to north-east by north. Our distance from the shore two leagues.
It is not possible for me to describe the pleasure which the blessing of the sight of this land diffused among us. It appeared scarce credible to ourselves that, in an open boat and so poorly provided, we should have been able to reach the coast of Timor in forty-one days after leaving Tofoa, having in that time run, by our log, a distance of 3618 miles; and that, notwithstanding our extreme distress, no one should have perished in the voyage.
I have already mentioned that I knew not where the Dutch settlement was situated but I had a faint idea that it was at the south-west part of the island. I therefore, after daylight, bore away alongshore to the south-south-west, which I was the more readily induced to do as the wind would not suffer us to go towards the north-east without great loss of time.
The day gave us a most agreeable prospect of the land which was interspersed with woods and lawns; the interior part mountainous, but the shore low. Towards noon the coast became higher with some remarkable headlands. We were greatly delighted with the general look of the country which exhibited many cultivated spots and beautiful situations; but we could only see a few small huts whence I concluded that no European resided in this part of the island. Much sea ran on the shore which made landing impracticable. At noon we were abreast of a high headland; the extremes of the land bore south-west half west, and north-north-east half east; our distance offshore being three miles; latitude by observation 9 degrees 59 minutes south; and my longitude by dead reckoning from the north part of New Holland 15 degrees 6 minutes west.
With the usual allowance of bread and water for dinner I divided the bird we had caught the night before, and to the surgeon and Lebogue I gave a little wine.
The wind blew fresh at east and east-south-east with very hazy weather. During the afternoon we continued our course along a low shore covered with innumerable palm-trees, called the Fan Palm from the leaf spreading like a fan; but here we saw no signs of cultivation, nor had the country so fine an appearance as to the eastward. This however was only a small tract, for by sunset it improved again and I saw several great smokes where the inhabitants were clearing and cultivating their grounds. We had now run 25 miles to the west-south-west since noon and were west five miles from a low point which, in the afternoon, I imagined had been the southernmost land, and here the coast formed a deep bend with low land in the bight that appeared like islands. The west shore was high; but from this part of the coast to the high cape which we were abreast of at noon the shore is low and I believe shoal. I particularly remark this situation because here the very high ridge of mountains that run from the east end of the island, terminate, and the appearance of the country changes for the worse.
That we might not run past any settlement in the night I determined to preserve my station till the morning and therefore brought to under a close-reefed foresail. We were here in shoal water, our distance from the shore being half a league, the westernmost land in sight bearing west-south-west half west. Served bread and water for supper and, the boat lying to very well, all but the officer of the watch endeavoured to get a little sleep.

Saturday 13.
At two in the morning we wore and stood in shore till daylight when I found we had drifted during the night about three leagues to the west-south-west, the southernmost land in sight bearing west. On examining the coast and not seeing any sign of a settlement we bore away to the westward having a strong gale against a weather current which occasioned much sea. The shore was high and covered with wood, but we did not run far before low land again formed the coast, the points of which opening at west I once more fancied we were on the south part of the island; but at ten o'clock we found the coast again inclining towards the south, part of it bearing west-south-west half west. At the same time high land appeared in the south-west; but the weather was so hazy that it was doubtful whether the two lands were separated, the opening only extending one point of the compass. For this reason I stood towards the outer land and found it to be the island Roti.
I returned to the shore we had left and brought to a grapnel in a sandy bay that I might more conveniently calculate my situation. In this place we saw several smokes where the natives were clearing their grounds. During the little time we remained here the master and carpenter very much importuned me to let them go in search of supplies; to which at length I assented but, not finding any other person willing to be of their party, they did not choose to quit the boat. I stopped here no longer than for the purpose just mentioned, and we continued steering alongshore. We had a view of a beautiful-looking country as if formed by art into lawns and parks. The coast is low and covered with woods in which are innumerable fan palm-trees that look like coconut walks. The interior part is high land but very different from the more eastern parts of the island where it is exceedingly mountainous and to appearance the soil better.
At noon the island Roti bore south-west by west seven leagues. I had no observation for the latitude but by account we were in 10 degrees 12 minutes south; our course since yesterday noon being south 77 degrees west 54 miles. The usual allowance of bread and water was served for breakfast and dinner, and to the surgeon and Lebogue I continued to give wine.
We had a strong breeze at east-south-east with hazy weather all the afternoon. At two o'clock, having run through a very dangerous breaking sea, the cause of which I attributed to be a strong tide setting to windward, and shoal water, we discovered a spacious bay or sound with a fair entrance about two or three miles wide. I now conceived hopes that our voyage was nearly at an end as no place could appear more eligible for shipping or more likely to be chosen for a European settlement: I therefore came to a grapnel near the east side of the entrance in a small sandy bay where we saw a hut, a dog, and some cattle, and I immediately sent the boatswain and gunner away to the hut to discover the inhabitants.
The south-west point of the entrance bore west half south three miles; the south-east point south by west three-quarters of a mile; and the island Roti from south by west one quarter west to south-west one quarter west about five leagues.
While we lay here I found the ebb came from the northward, and before our departure the falling of the tide discovered to us a reef of rocks about two cables length from the shore, the whole being covered at high-water renders it dangerous. On the opposite shore also appeared very high breakers; but there is nevertheless plenty of room and certainly a safe channel for a first-rate man of war.
The bay or sound within, seemed to be of a considerable extent, the northern part being about five leagues distant. Here the land made in moderate risings joined by lower grounds. But the island Roti to the southward is the best mark by which to know this place.
I had just time to make these remarks when I saw the boatswain and gunner returning with some of the natives: I therefore no longer doubted of our success and that our expectations would be fully gratified. They brought five Indians and informed me that they had found two families where the women treated them with European politeness. From these people I learned that the governor resided at a place called Coupang which was some distance to the north-east. I made signs for one of them to go in the boat and show us the way to Coupang, intimating that I would pay him for his trouble: the man readily complied and came into the boat.
These people were of a dark tawny colour, had long black hair, and chewed a great deal of betel. Their dress was a square piece of cloth round the hips in the folds of which was stuck a large knife; a handkerchief wrapped round the head, and another hanging by the four corners from the shoulders, which served as a bag for their betel equipage. They brought us a few pieces of dried turtle and some ears of Indian corn. This last was the most welcome; for the turtle was so hard that it could not be eaten without being first soaked in hot water. They offered to bring us some other refreshments if I would wait, but as the pilot was willing I determined to push on. It was about half an hour past four when we sailed.
By direction of the pilot we kept close to the east shore under all our sail; but as night came on the wind died away and we were obliged to try at the oars which I was surprised to see we could use with some effect. At ten o'clock, finding we advanced but slowly, I came to a grapnel and for the first time I issued double allowance of bread and a little wine to each person.

Sunday 14.
At one o'clock in the morning, after the most happy and sweet sleep that ever men enjoyed, we weighed and continued to keep the east shore on board in very smooth water; when at last I found we were again open to the sea, the whole of the land to the westward that we had passed being an island which the pilot called Pulo Samow. The northern entrance of this channel is about a mile and a half or two miles wide and I had no ground at ten fathoms.
The report of two cannon that were fired gave new life to everyone; and soon after we discovered two square-rigged vessels and a cutter at anchor to the eastward. We endeavoured to work to windward but were obliged to take to our oars again, having lost ground on each tack. We kept close to the shore and continued rowing till four o'clock when I brought to a grapnel and gave another allowance of bread and wine to all hands. As soon as we had rested a little we weighed again, and rowed till near daylight when we came to a grapnel off a small fort and town which the pilot told me was Coupang.
Among the things which the boatswain had thrown into the boat before we left the ship was a bundle of signal flags that had been used by the boats to show the depth of water in sounding; with these we had in the course of the passage made a small jack which I now hoisted in the main shrouds as a signal of distress, for I did not think proper to land without leave.
Soon after daybreak a soldier hailed us to land, which I immediately did among a crowd of Indians, and was agreeably surprised to meet with an English sailor who belonged to one of the vessels in the road. His captain he told me was the second person in the town; I therefore desired to be conducted to him as I was informed the governor was ill and could not then be spoken with.
Captain Spikerman received me with great humanity. I informed him of our distressed situation; and requested that care might be taken of those who were with me without delay. On which he gave directions for their immediate reception at his own house, and went himself to the governor to know at what time I could be permitted to see him, which was fixed to be at eleven o'clock.
I now desired my people to come on shore which was as much as some of them could do, being scarce able to walk: they however were helped to the house and found tea with bread and butter provided for their breakfast.
The abilities of a painter, perhaps, could seldom have been displayed to more advantage than in the delineation of the two groups of figures which at this time presented themselves to each other. An indifferent spectator would have been at a loss which most to admire, the eyes of famine sparkling at immediate relief, or the horror of their preservers at the sight of so many spectres, whose ghastly countenances, if the cause had been unknown, would rather have excited terror than pity. Our bodies were nothing but skin and bones, our limbs were full of sores, and we were clothed in rags: in this condition, with the tears of joy and gratitude flowing down our cheeks, the people of Timor beheld us with a mixture of horror, surprise, and pity.
The governor, Mr. William Adrian van Este, notwithstanding extreme ill-health, became so anxious about us that I saw him before the appointed time. He received me with great affection and gave me the fullest proofs that he was possessed of every feeling of a humane and good man. Sorry as he was, he said, that such a calamity could ever have happened to us, yet he considered it as the greatest blessing of his life that we had fallen under his protection and, though his infirmity was so great that he could not do the office of a friend himself, he would give such orders as I might be certain would procure us every supply we wanted. A house should be immediately prepared for me, and with respect to my people he said that I might have room for them either at the hospital or on board of captain Spikerman's ship which lay in the road; and he expressed much uneasiness that Coupang could not afford them better accommodations, the house assigned to me being the only one uninhabited and the situation of the few families that lived at this place such that they could not conveniently receive strangers. For the present till matters could be properly regulated he gave directions that victuals for my people should be dressed at his own house.
On returning to Captain Spikerman's house I found that every kind relief had been given to my people. The surgeon had dressed their sores and the cleaning of their persons had not been less attended to, several friendly gifts of apparel having been presented to them.
I desired to be shown to the house that was intended for me, which I found ready with servants to attend. It consisted of a hall, with a room at each end, and a loft overhead; and was surrounded by a piazza with an outer apartment in one corner and a communication from the back part of the house to the street. I therefore determined, instead of separating from my people, to lodge them all with me; and I divided the house as follows: one room I took to myself, the other I allotted to the master, surgeon, Mr. Nelson, and the gunner; the loft to the other officers, and the outer apartment to the men. The hall was common to the officers and the men had the back piazza. Of this disposition I informed the governor, and he sent down chairs, tables and benches, with bedding and other necessaries for the use of everyone.
The governor when I took my leave had desired me to acquaint him with everything of which I stood in need; but it was only at particular times that he had a few moments of ease, or could attend to anything, being in a dying state with an incurable disease. On this account I transacted whatever business I had with Mr. Timotheus Wanjon, the second of this place, who was the you governor's son-in-law, and who also contributed everything in his power to make our situation comfortable. I had been, therefore, misinformed by the seaman who told me that captain Spikerman was the next person in command to the governor.
At noon a dinner was brought to the house sufficiently good to make persons more accustomed to plenty eat too much. Yet I believe few in such a situation would have observed more moderation than my people did. My greatest apprehension was that they would eat too much fruit, of which there was great variety in season at this time.
Having seen everyone enjoy this meal of plenty I dined myself with Mr. Wanjon; but I felt no extraordinary inclination to eat or drink. Rest and quiet I considered as more necessary to the reestablishment of my health and therefore retired soon to my room which I found furnished with every convenience. But instead of rest my mind was disposed to reflect on our late sufferings, and on the failure of the expedition; but above all on the thanks due to Almighty God who had given us power to support and bear such heavy calamities and had enabled me at last to be the means of saving eighteen lives.
In times of difficulty there will generally arise circumstances that bear particularly hard on a commander. In our late situation it was not the least of my distresses to be constantly assailed with the melancholy demands of my people for an increase of allowance which it grieved me to refuse. The necessity of observing the most rigid economy in the distribution of our provisions was so evident that I resisted their solicitations and never deviated from the agreement we made at setting out. The consequence of this care was that at our arrival we had still remaining sufficient for eleven days at our scanty allowance: and if we had been so unfortunate as to have missed the Dutch settlement at Timor we could have proceeded to Java where I was certain that every supply we wanted could be procured.
Another disagreeable circumstance to which my situation exposed me was the caprice of ignorant people. Had I been incapable of acting they would have carried the boat on shore as soon as we made the island of Timor without considering that landing among the natives at a distance from the European settlement might have been as dangerous as among any other Indians.
The quantity of provisions with which we left the ship was not more than we should have consumed in five days had there been no necessity for husbanding our stock. The mutineers must naturally have concluded that we could have no other place of refuge than the Friendly Islands for it was not likely they should imagine that, so poorly equipped as we were in every respect, there could have been a possibility of our attempting to return homewards: much less can they suspect that the account of their villainy has already reached their native country.
When I reflect how providentially our lives were saved at Tofoa by the Indians delaying their attack and that, with scarce anything to support life, we crossed a sea of more than 1200 leagues, without shelter from the inclemency of the weather; when I reflect that in an open boat with so much stormy weather we escaped foundering, that not any of us were taken off by disease, that we had the great good fortune to pass the unfriendly natives of other countries without accident, and at last happily to meet with the most friendly and best of people to relieve our distresses; I say when I reflect on all these wonderful escapes the remembrance of such great mercies enables me to bear, with resignation and cheerfulness, the failure of an expedition the success of which I had so much at heart and which was frustrated at a time when I was congratulating myself on the fairest prospect of being able to complete it in a manner that would fully have answered the intention of His Majesty and the humane promoters of so benevolent a plan.
With respect to the preservation of our health during a course of 16 days of heavy and almost continual rain I would recommend to everyone in a similar situation the method we practised which is to dip their clothes in the salt-water and wring them out as often as they become filled with rain: it was the only resource we had, and I believe was of the greatest service to us, for it felt more like a change of dry clothes than could well be imagined. We had occasion to do this so often that at length all our clothes were wrung to pieces: for, except the few days we passed on the coast of New Holland, we were continually wet either with rain or sea.
Thus through the assistance of Divine Providence we surmounted the difficulties and distresses of a most perilous voyage and arrived safe in an hospitable port where every necessary and comfort were administered to us with a most liberal hand.

At Coupang.

June 1789.

From the great humanity and attention of the governor and the gentlemen at Coupang we received every kind of assistance and were not long without evident signs of returning health. Shortly after our arrival I presented to the governor a formal account of the loss of the Bounty; and a requisition in His Majesty's name that instructions might be sent to all the Dutch settlements to stop the ship if she made her appearance. With this a complete descriptive list of the mutineers was given.
I likewise requested in one of my first visits to the governor that Nelson might have permission to walk about the country in search of plants, which was readily granted with an offer of whatever assistance I should think necessary: and the governor assured me that the country was well worth examination as it abounded with many curious and medicinal plants. From this indulgence I derived no benefit, for Nelson, who since we left New Holland had been but in a weak condition, about this time was taken ill in consequence of a cold caused by imprudently leaving off warm clothing.
To secure our arrival at Batavia before the October fleet sailed for Europe I gave public notice of my intention to hire a vessel to carry us to Batavia. In consequence of this notice several offers were made but none that I thought reasonable; which determined me to purchase a small schooner in the road, that was 34 feet long, for which I gave 1000 rix-dollars and fitted her for sea under the name of His Majesty's schooner Resource. As the coast of Java is frequently infested with small piratical vessels it was necessary that we should be provided with the proper means of defence. In this I was assisted by the friendship of Mr. Wanjon who supplied me with four brass swivels, 14 stand of small arms, and ammunition, which he obligingly let me have as a loan to be returned at Batavia.

July 20.
On the 20th of July I had the misfortune to lose Mr. David Nelson: he died of an inflammatory fever. The loss of this honest man I very much lamented: he had with great care and diligence attended to the object for which he was sent, and had always been ready to forward every plan that was proposed, for the good of the service in which we were engaged. He was not less useful in our voyage hither, in the course of which he gave me great satisfaction, by the patience and fortitude with which he conducted himself.

July 21.
This day I was employed attending the funeral of Mr. Nelson. The corpse was carried by twelve soldiers dressed in black preceded by the minister; next followed myself and the second governor; then ten gentlemen of the town and the officers of the ships in the harbour; and after them my own officers and people.
After reading our burial-service the body was interred behind the chapel, in the burying-ground appropriated to the Europeans of the town. I was sorry I could get no tombstone to place over his remains.
This was the second voyage Mr. Nelson had undertaken to the South Seas, having been sent out by Sir Joseph Banks to collect plants, seeds, etc. in Captain Cook's last voyage. And now, after surmounting so many difficulties, and in the midst of thankfulness for his deliverance, he was called upon to pay the debt of nature at a time least expected.

August 20.
Our schooner being victualled and ready for sea, on the 20th of August I took an affectionate leave of the hospitable and friendly inhabitants of Coupang and embarked. In the afternoon we sailed, having the launch which had so much contributed to our preservation in tow. We exchanged salutes with the fort and shipping as we ran out of the harbour.
The town of Coupang is situated in a great bay which is an excellent road for shipping. The latitude of the town is 10 degrees 12 minutes south. According to the Dutch charts it is in 121 degrees 51 minutes east longitude. Taking the mean between the longitude by my reckoning on our arrival at Coupang, and the longitude afterwards calculated from our run to Batavia, gives me for the longitude of Coupang 124 degrees 41 minutes east.
This settlement was formed in the year 1630 and is the only one the Dutch have on the island Timor. They have residents in different parts of the country. On the north side of Timor there is a Portuguese settlement. The produce of the island is chiefly sandalwood and beeswax: the former article is now scarce. Wax they have in great plenty. The bees build their nests in bushes and in the boughs of trees to which the natives cannot approach but with fire. The honey is put into jars and the wax is run into blocks of three feet in length and from 12 to 15 inches square. The natives, at least those who live in the neighbourhood of Coupang, are of a very indolent disposition, of which the Chinese have taken advantage, for, though the Malays are very fond of traffic, most of their trade is carried on in small Chinese vessels of from 10 to 30 tons burden. There is a market at Coupang for the country people in which however there is little business done. I have seen a man from the country come to market with two potatoes: and this is not unusual. These being sold for two doits (equal to a halfpenny English) serve to supply him with betel to chew; and the remainder of the day is passed in lounging about the town. The inland people, who live at a distance from the Europeans, are strong and active, but their want of cleanliness subjects them to filthy diseases.
The chief of the natives, or king of the island, is by the Dutch styled Keyfer (Emperor). This prince lives at a place called Backennassy, about four miles distant from Coupang. His authority over the natives is not wholly undisputed; which is by the Dutch attributed to the intrigues of the Portuguese, who are on the north part of Timor. The island has lately suffered much by a competition between the present king and one of his nephews, which caused a civil war that lasted from the beginning of the year 1786 to 1788, when their differences were settled by a treaty, chiefly in favour of the king. The ravages committed in these disputes have occasioned a scarcity of provisions that probably, from the want of industry in the natives, will not soon be remedied. I had an opportunity of making a visit to the king. His dwelling was a large house which was divided into only three apartments and surrounded by a piazza, agreeably situated but very dirty, as was all the furniture. The king, who is an elderly man, received me with much civility and ordered refreshments to be set before me, which were tea, rice cakes, roasted Indian corn, and dried buffalo flesh, with about a pint of arrack, which I believe was all he had. His dress was a check wrapper girded round his waist with a silk and gold belt, a loose linen jacket, and a coarse handkerchief about his head. A few of his chiefs were with him who partook of our repast; after which the king retired with three of them for a short time and when he returned presented me with a round plate of metal about four inches diameter on which was stamped the figure of a star. As I had been informed that arrack would be an acceptable present I was prepared to make a return which was well received. They never dilute their liquor and from habit are able to drink a large quantity of spirits at a time without being intoxicated.
When a king dies a large feast is made to which all the inhabitants are invited. The body after a few days is put into a coffin which is closed up and kept three years before it is interred.
The Dutch have been at some pains to establish Christianity among the natives: but it has not gained much ground, except in the neighbourhood of Coupang. The present king was christened by the name of Barnardus. His Indian name is Bachee Bannock. The scriptures are translated into the Malay language and prayers are performed in the church at Coupang by a Malay clergyman, in that language.
I met at Timor with most of the fruits that are described in Captain Cook's first voyage as natives of Batavia, except the mangosteen. The breadfruit tree, called by the Malays soccoom, likewise grows here with great luxuriance and appears to be as much a native of this island as it is of Otaheite. The fruit is exactly of the same kind but not so good. A breadfruit of Timor weighs half as much more as one of equal size at Otaheite. It is not used here as bread but generally eaten with milk and sugar. At Backennassy I saw about twenty of the trees, larger than any I have seen at Otaheite. Here is also a sort of breadfruit tree that produces seeds not unlike Windsor beans and equally palatable either boiled or roasted. No other part of the fruit is eatable and, though the tree I am told is to all appearance the same as the other, the fruits have but little resemblance, the fruit of this being covered with projecting points nearly half an inch in length.
I received a present of some fine plants from the governor, which I was afterwards unfortunately obliged to leave at Batavia for want of proper room to take care of them in the packet by which I returned to Europe. Mr. Wanjon likewise favoured me with some seeds for His Majesty's garden at Kew which I had the good fortune to deliver safe on my return: and some of the mountain rice cultivated at Timor on the dry land, which was forwarded to His Majesty's botanic garden at St. Vincent, and to other parts in the West Indies.
A resemblance of language between the people of the South Sea islands and the inhabitants of many of the islands in the East Indies has been remarked in Captain Cook's first voyage. Here the resemblance appeared stronger than has yet been noticed; particularly in their numerals. But besides the language I observed some customs among the people of Timor still more striking for their similarity. They practise the tooge-tooge* of the Friendly Islands which they call toombock: and the roomee of Otaheite which they call ramas. I likewise saw, placed on their graves, offerings of baskets with tobacco and betel.
(*Footnote. The tooge-tooge is described in Captain Cook's last voyage Volume 1 page 323; and the roomee in the same voyage Volume 2 page 64.)
I left the governor Mr. van Este at the point of death. To this gentleman our most grateful thanks are due for the humane and friendly treatment that we received from him. His ill state of health only prevented him from showing us more particular marks of attention. Unhappily it is to his memory only that I now pay this tribute. It was a fortunate circumstance for us that Mr. Wanjon, the next in place to the governor, was equally humane and ready to relieve us. His attention was unremitting and, when there was a doubt about supplying me with money to enable me to purchase a vessel, he cheerfully took it upon himself; without which it was evident, I should have been too late at Batavia to have sailed for Europe with the October fleet. I can only return such services by ever retaining a grateful remembrance of them.
Mr. Max the town surgeon likewise behaved to us with the most disinterested humanity: he attended everyone with the utmost care, for which I could not prevail on him to receive any payment, or to render me any account, or other answer than that it was his duty.

From Timor to Batavia.

August 1789.

Thursday 20.
From Coupang we steered north-west by west having a moderate breeze at south-east with fair weather.

Saturday 22.
At daylight we saw the island Flores to the northward. At noon latitude observed 9 degrees 27 minutes south, and longitude by account from Coupang 2 degrees 10 minutes west. Our distance from the coast of Flores was about 10 leagues; and two high peaked mountains bore north half east and north-north-west. These two mountains resemble each other in shape and the westernmost is a volcano. The interior parts of Flores are mountainous and woody: but near the sea-coast is a fine open country. A Dutch map with which I was provided places the south part of Flores in 9 degrees 3 minutes south which I am of opinion is too far south. We steered along the south side of Flores, mostly with light winds and hazy weather, so that we did not constantly keep sight of the coast.

Tuesday 25.
At noon we were off Toorns island which bore north-west by north three or four leagues distant. Our latitude observed was 8 degrees 57 minutes south and longitude made by dead reckoning from Coupang 3 degrees 27 minutes west. Toorns island is about four leagues in circuit and has a craggy and uneven appearance. There is a curious high peak on the south-west part: the land near the shore is low and woody.

Thursday 27.
On the 27th at noon we were near the entrance of the Straits of Mangaryn, which not appearing so open and clear as represented in the map, I steered for the straits of Sapi, intending to pass through; but was obliged to give up this plan by strong currents setting to the south-east which there was not sufficient wind to enable us to stem.

Saturday 29.
I therefore again stood for the Straits of Mangaryn which we ran through in the afternoon of the 29th, being favoured with a fresh breeze from the south-south-east. On our first entering the straits we got close to the Flores shore: our course through was north half east. We tried for soundings but could not anywhere find bottom at 25 and 30 fathoms depth. On the Flores side there are many good harbours and bays where vessels may anchor; but the country hereabouts appears burnt up and desolate.
I had no azimuth-compass and consequently could not observe very accurately the variation; but I believe there is so little in Mangaryn Straits that no great error will be occasioned by considering the true and magnetic bearings to be the same.
When we had passed the straits we kept to the westward, running along the north side of the island Sumbawa, where there is a very high mountain near the coast, at the foot of which I am informed, are many runs of good water, conveniently situated for ships to supply themselves. The latitude of the north part of Sumbawa I make by my observations and bearings to be 8 degrees 6 minutes south, which differs very little from the Dutch charts.

Monday 31.
In the night of the 31st several prows were rowing about us, on which account we kept all night under arms.

September. Thursday 3.
This and the two following days we were sailing along the north side of the island Lombok, on which is a high mountain. Most of the islands in this route are distinguished by high mountains. Lombok appears to be well clothed with wood. In the nights we saw fires upon the high lands at a distance from the coast.
Sunday 6.
In the afternoon we saw the high land of Cape Sandana, which is the north-east part of Java.

Monday 7.
The next day we were off cape Sandana which is a low cape projecting from the high land already mentioned. This cape is placed by the Dutch maps in 7 degrees 52 minutes south. But according to my observation and our estimated distance from the land I make it in 7 degrees 46 minutes south latitude. The longitude by my dead reckoning from Coupang to Cape Sandana was 11 degrees 33 minutes west.

Thursday 10.
We steered to the westward along the coast of Java and on the 10th at noon we anchored off Passourwang, a Dutch settlement on the coast of Java, in two fathoms, distant from the shore half a league, the entrance of the river bearing south-west. The coast hereabouts so is shoal that large ships are obliged to anchor three or four miles from the land. As soon as we were at anchor I got in my boat and went on shore. The banks of the river near the entrance were mud, on which grew a few mangrove bushes. Among them we saw hogs running and many were laying dead in the mud, which caused a most intolerable stench and made me heartily repent having come here; but after proceeding about a mile up the river, the course of which was serpentine, we found a very pleasant country and landed at a small and well-constructed fort, where I was received in a friendly and polite manner by M. Adrian van Rye, the commandant. By the return of the boat I sent on board a small bullock and other provisions. I likewise took a pilot to conduct us to Sourabaya.
The houses at Passourwang are neatly built and the country appears to be well cultivated. The produce of this settlement is rice, of which they export large quantities. There are but few Dutch here: the Javanese are numerous and their chief lives with considerable splendour. They have good roads and posts are established along the coast; and it appears to be a busy and well-regulated settlement. Latitude 7 degrees 36 minutes south. Longitude 1 degree 44 minutes west of Cape Sandana.

Friday 11.
The next day about noon we sailed.

Saturday 12.
And on the 12th in the evening anchored in Sourabaya road in seven fathoms: the flagstaff bearing south one quarter west; distance from the shore one mile. We found riding here seven square-rigged and several smaller vessels.
It was too late when we anchored to send a boat on shore.

Sunday 13.
The next morning before daylight three guard-boats stationed themselves near us and I was informed that I must not land or send a boat on shore. This restriction I learnt from the officer of the guard-boats was in conformity to general orders concerning all strange vessels on their first arrival. At nine in the forenoon leave came off for us to land and soon after the guard-boats quitted us.
I was received on shore with great civility and friendship by the governor or Opperhoost M. Ant. Barkay, and the commandant of the troops M. de Bose. By these gentlemen I was hospitably entertained, and advised to remain till the 16th when some vessels were to sail, with whom I might keep company, which they recommended on account of pirates.
Sourabaya is one of the most pleasant places I ever saw. It is situated on the banks of a river and is a mile and a half distant from the seashore so that only the flagstaff can be seen from the road. The river is navigable up to the town for vessels of 100 tons burden, and the bank on one side is made convenient for tracking. The Chinese carry on a considerable trade here, and have a town or camp on the side of the river opposite to Sourabaya. The country near the town is flat and the soil light, so that they plow with a single bullock or buffalo (karrabow). The interior parts of the country near the mountains are infested with a breed of fierce tigers, which makes travelling inland very dangerous. They have here a breed of horses which are small but they are handsome and strong.
The Javanese in this neighbourhood are numerous. M. Barkay and M. de Bose took me with them to pay a visit to two of the principal natives, whom we found attended by a number of men armed with pikes in great military order. We were entertained with a concert of music; the instruments were gongs, drums, and a fiddle with two strings. I hired a pilot here to carry us to Batavia. Our latitude observed in Sourabaya road was 7 degrees 11 minutes south. Longitude made from Cape Sandana 1 degree 52 minutes west.

Thursday 17.
On the 17th we sailed from Sourabaya in company with three prows. At noon we anchored at Crissey which is a town with a small fort belonging to the Dutch. We remained here about two hours and then weighed. Latitude of Crissey 7 degrees 9 minutes south. Longitude from Cape Sandana 1 degree 55 minutes west.
The navigation through the Straits of Madura is so intricate that with the little opportunity I had I am unable to undertake a description of it.

Friday 18.
The next day, having passed the straits, we bore away to the westward along the coast of Java in company with the prows before mentioned.

Tuesday 22.
We had regular soundings all the way to Samarang, off which place we anchored on the 22nd in the afternoon; the church bearing south-east; distance from the shore half a league: depth of water two fathoms. The shoalness of the coast here makes the road of Samarang very inconvenient, both on account of the great distance that large ships (of which there were several in the road) are obliged to lay from the shore, and of the landing which is in a river that cannot be entered before half-flood. This river resembles the one at Passourwang, the shores being low with offensive dead animals laying about. I was met at the landing-place by the equipage-master, and he furnished me with a carriage to carry me to the governor, whose residence is about two miles from the town of Samarang. I requested and obtained leave to have our wants supplied, which were to recruit our provisions, and to get a any mainmast, having sprung ours in the passage from Sourabaya.
Samarang is a fortified town surrounded by a wall and ditch, and is the most considerable settlement next to Batavia that the Dutch have in Java. Here is a very good hospital and a public school, chiefly for teaching the mathematics. They have likewise a theatre. Provisions are remarkably cheap here, beef being at ten doits per pound and the price of a fowl 12 doits.
I experienced great civility from some of the gentlemen at Samarang, particularly from M. le Baron de Bose, a merchant, brother to the M. de Bose, commandant of the troops at Sourabaya: and from M. Abegg, the surgeon of the hospital, to whom we were indebted for advice and medicines for which he would not consent to receive payment.
The latitude of Samarang is 6 degrees 57 minutes. Longitude by my reckoning from Cape Sandana 4 degrees 7 minutes west.

Saturday 26.
On the 26th we sailed from Samarang and with us a galley mounting six swivels which the governor had directed to accompany us to Batavia.

October. Thursday 1.
On the 1st of October we anchored in Batavia road, where we found riding a Dutch ship of war and 20 sail of Dutch East India ships, besides many smaller vessels.

Occurrences at Batavia and Passage thence
to England.

October 1789.
In the afternoon at four o'clock I went on shore and landed at a house by the river where strangers first stop and give an account who they are, whence they came, etc. From this place a Malay gentleman took me in a carriage to Sabandar, Mr. Engelhard, whose house was in the environs of the city on the side nearest the shipping. The Sabandar is the officer with whom all strangers are obliged to transact their business: at least the whole must go through his hands. With him I went to pay my respects to the governor-general who received me with great civility. I acquainted his excellency with my situation and requested my people might be taken care of and that we should be allowed to take a passage to Europe in the first ship that sailed. I likewise desired permission to sell the schooner and launch. All this his excellency told me should be granted. I then took leave and returned with the Sabandar who wrote down the particulars of my wants in order to form from them a regular petition to be presented to the council the next day. I had brought from the governor of Coupang, directed for the governor-general at Batavia, the account of my voyage and misfortune, translated into Dutch from an account that I had given to Mr. van Este. So attentive had they been at Timor to everything that related to us.
There is a large hotel at Batavia fitted up purposely for the accommodation of strangers, who are not allowed to reside at any other place. It is situated near the great river in a part of the city that is reckoned the most airy and healthy. Nevertheless I found the air hot and suffocating and was taken ill in the night with a violent pain in my head.

Friday 2.
The next morning at nine the council sat and I attended, accompanied by the Sabandar; and was informed that the council had complied with all I had requested.
When I returned to the hotel my headache increased and a violent fever came on. I sent to acquaint the Sabandar of my situation and was soon after attended by the head surgeon of the town hospital Mr. Aansorp, by whose care and skill in less than 24 hours the fever considerably abated but a severe headache continued. I had an invitation from the governor-general to dine with him, which of course I was obliged to decline.
I hired a carriage which cost three dollars per day for the benefit of taking an airing. My lodgings at the hotel were so close and hot that I desired the Sabandar to apply to the Governor-General for leave to hire a house in the country; which request his excellency not only immediately complied with but gave directions for my being accommodated at the house of the physician or surgeon-general Mr. Sparling.
One of my people, Thomas Hall, being ill with a flux I obtained leave for him to be sent to the country hospital which is a convenient airy building.

Tuesday 6.
This morning at sunrise I left the hotel and was carried to Mr. Sparling's house, about four miles distant from the city and near the convalescent hospital which at this time had also sick men in it, the whole number of patients amounting to 800. I found everything prepared for my comfort and convenience. Mr. Sparling would suffer me to take no medicine though I had still considerable fever with headache: but I found so much relief from the difference of the air that in the evening I was able to accompany Mr. Sparling on a visit to the governor-general at one of his country seats, where we found many ladies all dressed in the Malay fashion, some of them richly ornamented with jewels. I had invitations from several gentlemen and some very kindly pressed me to make their country houses my abode till my health should be reestablished.
My indisposition increasing, Mr. Sparling advised me to quit Batavia as speedily as possible and represented the necessity of it to the governor-general. I was informed from his excellency that the homeward-bound ships were so much crowded that there would be no possibility of all my people going in one ship, and that they could be accommodated no other way than by dividing them into different ships. Seeing therefore that a separation was unavoidable I determined to follow the advice of the physician and, as a packet was appointed to sail for Europe on the 16th instant, I sent to request of the governor that I might be allowed to take a passage in her for myself and as many of my people as they were able to receive. In answer to this I was acquainted that myself and two more could be accommodated in the packet, she being too small to admit a greater number; but that I might rest assured of passages being provided for those that remained by the earliest opportunities.

Friday 9.
This day anchored in the road the General Elliot, an English ship commanded by Captain Lloyd. In the Straits of Banca he had met with some boats belonging to the East India Company's ship Vansittart that was lost in the straits of Billaton by having struck on a rock that went through her bottom. Captain Wilson, who commanded the Vansittart, I was informed had just finished a survey of those Straits and was hoisting his boat in when the ship struck. Immediately on receiving the intelligence Captain Lloyd, in the General Elliot and another ship in company called the Nonsuch, sailed for the wreck. They found the ship had been burnt down to the water's edge by the Malays. They however saved 40 chests of treasure out of 55 which were said to have been on board. Most of the ship's company were saved: one man only was lost in the ship, and five others in a small boat were missing who were supposed to have taken some of the treasure. The greater part of the people went with Captain Wilson to China, and some were with Captain Lloyd.

Saturday 10.
This morning the Resource was sold by public auction: the custom at Batavia is to begin high and to lower the price till some person bids; and the first bidder is the buyer. She was accordingly put up at 2000 rix-dollars but to my great disappointment no one offered to purchase before the auctioneer had lowered the demand to 295 rix-dollars, for which price she was sold, the purchaser being an Englishman, Captain John Eddie, who commanded an English ship from Bengal. If no strangers had been present at the sale I imagine they would have let her run down to 200 dollars, in which case I should have had no alternative.
The launch likewise was sold. The services she had rendered us made me feel great reluctance at parting with her; which I would not have done if I could have found a convenient opportunity of getting her conveyed to Europe.
Little as the schooner had sold for I found I was in danger of having the sum lessened; for the Sabandar informed me that by an order of the council there was a duty on the sale of all vessels. With this demand I would by no means comply for I thought I had sufficiently suffered in sustaining a loss of 705 rix-dollars out of 1000 by the purchase and sale of the vessel, she having cost 1000 rix-dollars.
This day Thomas Hall, whom I had sent to be taken care of at the hospital, died. He had been ill of a flux from the time of our arrival at Timor.

Monday 12.
I agreed with the captain of the packet for a passage to Europe for myself, my clerk, and a servant. The Sabandar informed me it was necessary that my officers and people should be examined before a notary respecting the loss of the Bounty, as otherwise the governor and council were not legally authorised to detain her if she should be found in any of the Dutch settlements. They were therefore at my desire examined, and afterwards made affidavit before the governor and council at the Stadthouse.
My officers complaining to me of the unreasonableness of some tradesmen's bills I spoke to the Sabandar. A bill of 51 dollars for five hats he reduced to 30 dollars and in other articles made proportionable deductions.
Paper money is the currency of Batavia and is so understood in all bargains. At this time paper was at 28 per cent discount: there is likewise a difference in the value of the ducatoon which at Batavia is 80 stivers and in Holland only 63 stivers: this occasions a loss of 21 1/4 per cent on remittance of money. It therefore follows that if any person at Batavia remits money by bills of exchange to Europe they lose by the discount and the exchange 49 1/4 per cent.
Those who have accounts to pay and can give unexceptionable bills on Europe will find a considerable saving by negotiating their bills with private people who are glad to give for them a premium of 20 per cent at the least. This discovery I made somewhat too late to profit by.
One of the greatest difficulties that strangers have to encounter is their being obliged to live at the hotel. This hotel was formerly two houses which by doors of communication have been made one. It is in the middle of a range of buildings more calculated for a cold country than for such a climate as Batavia. There is no free circulation of air and what is equally bad it is always very dirty; and there is great want of attendance. What they call cleaning the house is another nuisance; for they never use any water to cool it or to lay the dust, but sweep daily with brooms in such a manner that those in the house are almost suffocated by a cloud of dust.
The months of December and January are reckoned the most unhealthy of the year, the heavy rains being then set in. The account of the seasons as given to me here I believe may be relied on.
The middle of November the west monsoon begins and rain.
December and January. Continual rain with strong westerly wind.
February. Westerly wind. Towards the end of this month the rain begins to abate.
March. Intervals of fine weather. Wind westerly.
April. In this month the east monsoon begins. Weather generally fine with showers of rain.
May. East monsoon fixed. Showery.
June and July. Clear weather. Strong east wind.
August and September. Wind more moderate.
October. In this month the wind begins to be variable with showers of rain.
The current is said always to run with the wind. Nevertheless I found the reverse in sailing from Timor to Java. Between the end of October and the beginning of the ensuing year no Dutch ship bound for Europe is allowed to sail from Batavia for fear of being near the Mauritius at the time of the hurricanes which are frequent there in December and January.
My illness prevented me from gaining much knowledge of Batavia. Of their public buildings I saw nothing that gave me so much satisfaction as their country hospital for seamen. It is a large commodious and airy building about four miles from the town, close to the side of the river, or rather in the river: for the ground on which it stands has by labour been made an island of, and the sick are carried there in a boat: each ward is a separate dwelling and the different diseases are properly classed. They have sometimes 1400 patients in it: at this time there were 800, but more than half of these were recovered and fit for service, of whom 300 were destined for the fleet that was to sail for Europe. I went through most of the wards and there appeared great care and attention. The sheets, bedding, and linen of the sick were perfectly neat and clean. The house of the physician, Mr. Sparling, who has the management of the hospital is at one extremity of the building: and here it was that I resided. To the attention and care of this gentleman, for which he would receive no payment, I am probably indebted for my life.
The hospital in the town is well attended, but the situation is so ill chosen that it certainly would be the saving of many lives to build one in its stead up the river, which might be done with great advantage as water carriage is so easy and convenient. A great neglect in some of the commanders of the shipping here was suffering their people to go dirty and frequently without frock, shirt, or anything to cover their bodies, which, besides being a public nuisance, must probably be productive of ill health in the most robust constitution.
The governor-general gave me leave to lodge all my people at the country hospital which I thought a great advantage and with which they were perfectly satisfied. The officers however at their own request remained in the town.
The time fixed for the sailing of the packet approaching, I settled my accounts with the Sabandar, leaving open the victualling account to be closed by Mr. Fryer the master previous to his departure, who I likewise authorised to supply the men and officers left under his command with one month's pay to enable them to purchase clothing for their passage to England.
I had been at great pains to bring living plants from Timor, in six tubs, which contained jacks, nancas, karambolas, namnams, jambos, and three thriving breadfruit plants. These I thought might be serviceable at the Cape of Good Hope if brought no farther: but I had the mortification of being obliged to leave them all at Batavia. I took these plants on board at Coupang on the 20th of August: they had experienced a passage of 42 days to my arrival here. The breadfruit plants died to the root and sprouted afresh from thence. The karambolas, jacks, nancas, and namnams I had raised from the seed and they were in fine order. No judgment can hence be formed of the success of transporting plants, as in the present trial they had many disadvantages.

Friday 16.
This morning being sunrise I embarked on board the Vlydte packet commanded by Captain Peter Couvret, bound for Middleburgh. With me likewise embarked Mr. John Samwell, clerk, and John Smith, seaman. Those of our company who stayed behind the governor promised me should follow in the first ships and be as little divided as possible. At 7 o'clock the packet weighed and sailed out of the road.

Sunday 18.
On the 18th we spoke the Rambler, an American brig belonging to Boston, bound to Batavia. After passing the Straits of Sunda we steered to the north of the Cocos Isles. These islands, Captain Couvret informed me, are full of coconut trees: there is no anchorage near them but good landing for boats. Their latitude 12 degrees 0 minutes south. Longitude 96 degrees 5 minutes east.
In the passage to the Cape of Good Hope there occurred nothing worth remark. I cannot however forbear noticing the Dutch manner of navigating. They steer by true compass, or rather endeavour so to do, by means of a small movable central card, which they set to the meridian: and whenever they discover the variation has altered 2 1/2 degrees since the last adjustment they again correct the central card. This is steering within a quarter of a point, without aiming at greater exactness. The officer of the watch likewise corrects the course for leeway by his own judgment before it is marked down in the log board. They heave no log: I was told that the company do not allow it. Their manner of computing their run is by means of a measured distance of 40 feet along the ship's side: they take notice of any remarkable patch of froth when it is abreast the foremost end of the measured distance, and count half seconds till the mark of froth is abreast the after end. With the number of half seconds thus obtained they divide the number 48, taking the product for the rate of sailing in geographical miles in one hour, or the number of Dutch miles in four hours.
It is not usual to make any allowance to the sun's declination on account of being on a different meridian from that for which the tables are calculated: they in general compute with the numbers just as they are found in the table. From all this it is not difficult to conceive the reason why the Dutch are frequently above ten degrees out in their reckoning. Their passages likewise are considerably lengthened by not carrying a sufficient quantity of sail.

December 16.
In the afternoon we anchored in Table Bay.

December 17.
The next morning I went on shore and waited on his excellency M. Vander Graaf who received me in the most polite and friendly manner. The Guardian, commanded by Lieutenant Riou, had left the Cape about eight days before with cattle and stores for Port Jackson. This day anchored in table bay the Astree, a French frigate, commanded by the Count de St. Rivel from the Isle of France, on board of which ship was the late governor, the Chevalier d'Entrecasteaux. Other ships that arrived during my stay at the Cape were a French 40-gun frigate, an East India ship, and a brig, of the same nation: likewise two other French ships with slaves from the coast of Mozambique bound to the West Indies: a Dutch packet from Europe, after a four months passage: and the Harpy, a South Sea Whaler with 500 barrels of spermaceti, and 400 of seal and other oils. There is a standing order from the Dutch East India Company that no person who takes a passage from Batavia for Europe in any of their ships shall be allowed to leave the ship before she arrives at her intended port. According to which regulation I must have gone to Holland in the packet. Of this I was not informed till I was taking leave of the governor-general at Batavia, when it was too late for him to give the Captain an order to permit me to land in the channel. He however desired I would make use of his name to governor Vander Graaf, who readily complied with my request and gave the necessary orders to the Captain of the packet, a copy of which his excellency gave to me; and at the same time recommendatory letters to people of consequence in Holland in case I should be obliged to proceed so far.
I left a letter at the Cape of Good Hope to be forwarded to governor Phillips at Port Jackson by the first opportunity, containing a short account of my voyage with a descriptive list of the pirates: and from Batavia I had written to Lord Cornwallis, so that every part of India will be prepared to receive them.

Saturday 2.
We sailed from the Cape in company with the Astree French frigate. The next morning neither ship nor land were in sight. On the 15th we passed in sight of the island St. Helena. The 21st we saw the island Ascension. On the 10th of February, the wind being at north-east blowing fresh, our sails were covered with a fine orange-coloured dust. Fuego, the westernmost of the Cape de Verde islands and the nearest land to us on that day at noon bore north-east by east half east, distance 140 leagues. When we had passed the latitude of the Western Islands a lookout was kept for some rocks which Captain Couvret had been informed lay in latitude 44 degrees 25 minutes north and 2 degrees 50 minutes east longitude from the east end of St. Michael. This information Captain Couvret had received from a person that he knew and who said he had seen them. On the 13th of March we saw the Bill of Portland and on the evening of the next day, Sunday March the 14th, I left the packet and was landed at Portsmouth by an Isle of Wight boat.
Those of my officers and people whom I left at Batavia were provided with passages in the earliest ships; and at the time we parted were apparently in good health. Nevertheless they did not all live to quit Batavia. Mr. Elphinstone, master's mate, and Peter Linkletter, seaman, died within a fortnight after my departure, the hardships they had experienced having rendered them unequal to cope with so unhealthy a climate as that of Batavia. The remainder embarked on board the Dutch fleet for Europe, and arrived safe at this country, except Robert Lamb, who died on the passage, and Mr. Ledward the surgeon who has not yet been heard of. Thus of nineteen who were forced by the mutineers into the launch it has pleased God that twelve should surmount the difficulties and dangers of the voyage and live to revisit their native country.

After the Bounty
After a court of inquiry, Bligh went on to serve under Admiral Nelson at the Battle of Copenhagen, commanding HMS Glatton, a 56-gun ship of the line, which was experimentally fitted exclusively with carronades. After the battle, Bligh was personally praised by Nelson for his contribution to the victory. He sailed the Glatton safely between the banks while three other vessels ran aground. When Nelson feigned not to notice the signal 43 from Admiral Parker, to stop the battle and kept the signal 16 hoisted to continue the engagement, Bligh was the only captain who could see the conflicting two signals. By choosing to also display Nelson's signal, he ensured that all the vessels behind him kept fighting.

As captain of HMS Director, at the Battle of Camperdown, Bligh engaged three Dutch vessels: the Haarlem, the Alkmaar and the Vrijheid. While the Dutch suffered serious casualties, only 7 seamen were wounded on the Director.

Bligh was offered the position of Governor of New South Wales by Sir Joseph Banks and appointed in March 1805, at ?2,000 per annum, twice the pay of the retiring Governor Philip Gidley King. He arrived in Sydney in August 1806, to become the fourth governor. There he suffered another mutiny, the Rum Rebellion, when, on 26 January 1808, the New South Wales Corps under Major George Johnson (a.k.a. Johnston) marched on government house and arrested him. He sailed to Hobart on the Porpoise, failed to gain support to retake control of the colony and remained effectively imprisoned on board from 1808 till January 1810.

He sailed from Hobart and arrived in Sydney on 17 January 1810 to collect evidence for the upcoming court-martial of Major George Johnson. He departed for the trial in England aboard the Porpoise on 12th May and arrived on 25 October 1810. The court-martial cashiered Johnson from the Marine Corps and British armed forces.

Afterwards, Bligh's promotion to Rear Admiral was backdated and 3 years later, in 1814, he was promoted again, to Vice Admiral of the Blue.

Bligh designed the North Bull Wall at the mouth of the River Liffey in Dublin, to ensure the entrance to Dublin Port did not silt up by a sandbar forming.

Bligh died in Bond Street, London on 6 December 1817 and was buried in a family plot at St. Mary's, Lambeth. This church is now the Museum of Garden History. His tomb, notable for its use of Coade stone, is topped by a breadfruit. A plaque marks Bligh's house, one block east of the Museum.

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